Gist of Indian Polity From N.C.E.R.T. Book for Civil Services Preliminary Examinations -2013

Gist of Indian Polity From N.C.E.R.T. Book

What is a constitution?What are its functions? What role does it perform society? How does a constitution relate to our daily existence?

The first function of a constitution is to provide a set of basic rules allow for minimal coordination amongstmembers of a society.

Specification of decisionmaking powers A constitution is a body of fundamental that principles according to which a state is constituted or governed. But what should these fundamental rules be? And what makes-them fundamental? Well, the first question-you will have to decide is who gets to decide what the laws governing the society should be? Youmay want rule X, but others may want rule Y. How do we decide whose rules or preferences should govern us? You may think the rules you want everyone to live by are the best; but others think that their rules are the best. How do we resolve this dispute? So even before you decide what rules should govern this group you have to decide: Who gets to decide? The constitution ho provide an answer to this question. It specifies the basic allocation of power in a society. It decides who gets to decide what the laws will be. In principle, this question, who gets to decide, can be answered in many ways: in a monarchical constitution, a monarch decides; in some constitutions like the old Soviet Union, one single party was given the power to decide. But in democratic constitutions, broadly speaking, the people get to decide. But this matter is not so simple. Because even if you answer that the people should decide, it will not answer the question: how should the people decide? For something to be law, should everyone agree to it? Should the people directly vote on each matter as the ancient Greeks did? Or should the people express their preferences by electing representatives? But if the people act through their representatives be elected? How many should there be?