Modern Indian History
British Conflict With Other Powers
The Three curnatic wars.
- War took place between English headed by Clive & French headed by Duplex & Labour done.
- War ended in compromise with the end of War of Austrian succession with the Treaty of Axe-la-chapal, 1748
- In this Dupleix was defeated by Clive
- Battle of Wandiwash in 1760 in which Eyre Coot from English side defeated the French under Busy. This battle ended French commercial influence.
- Treaty of Paris, ended 7 years war in Europe & ended war in India as well.
1. Three wars were fought between the Company and the Marathas Second war weakend the Maratha power considerably- Third war destroyed Maratha power.
2. First Anglo-Maratha war-1775-82.
- Basic cause of war was conflict over Gaddi of Peshawa between Raghunath Rao & Madhav Rao-II also known as Madhav Rao Narayan supported by great Maratha politician Nana Fhadanvis. Raghnath Rao sought British help.
- The battle was averted by mediation of Scindia. Through his efforts Treaty of Salbai was signed i 1782 between English & Madhav Rao.
3. Second Anglo-Maratha War -1803-1806.
- Combined forces of peshwa & Scindia were defeated by Holkar in 1802
- Peshwa Baji Rao II sought British help.
- British gave help on the basis of subsidiary Treaty known as Treaty of Baessin in 1802.
- Maratha reaction gave birth to second Anglo-Maratha war. Scindia & Bhonsle declared war against British. Holkar did not participate in beginning.
- Bhonsle signed Treaty of Devgaon in 1803 & Scindia signed Treaty of Surji Arjungaon in 1803.
- After these treaties small battle fought between Holkar & British in 1804-War ended with Treaty of Rajpur Ghat in 1806.
4. Third Anglo-Maratha War-1817-1818
- Second war weakend Maratha power but it had not destroyed Maratha’s Anti-British spirit.
- Treaty of Baessin & Subsequent treaties eroded position, power & status of Peshwa & other Maratha Chiefs.
- Maratha reaction gave birth to Third Anglo- Maratha war. This was initiated by Peshwa by attacking British residency at Poona.
- Peshwa Baji Rao II, Yashwant Rao Halkar & Appa Sahib Bhonsle declared war against British
- All the three were defeated by the British
- Peshwaship was abolished
- Peshwa was exiled to Bithur with the Pension of Rs. 8 lakh.
1. Mysore was part of Vijayanagar Empire. After decline of the Vijanagar Empire Wodeyar dynasty established its rule. Haider Ali was a fauzdar in Mysor Army. Later he became defacto ruler and he initiated a policy of expansion of Mysore.
2. His policy of expansion alarmed the British. They initiated efforts to counterbalance Haider Ali. Which gave birth to Anglo-Mysore conflict.
3. First Anglo-Mysore War- 1767-69.
4. Second Anglo-MysoreWar-1780-84.
- In this war Haider Ali died after the Battle of Porto Novo in 1781. In this battle he was defeated by Eyre Coot.
- War was continued by Tipu War ended by Treaty of Manglore in 1784.
5. Third Anglo-Mysore-War-1790-92
- Tipu Sultan Strengthening himself, seeking French help &attacking English protected Stsate Travencore in 1789. This became immediate cause of the third War
- War ended with Treaty of srirangpattanam in 1792 & in this Treaty Tipu gave half of his territory to English & his two soon as security.
6. Fourth Anglo-Mysore War-1799
- Wellesely accused Tipu of conspiracy
- with the help of French against British &
- declared War in 1799
- British victory & death of tipu
1. British interest in Afghanistan was to control Afghanistan in order to protect incursions from north-west in particular to counter balance Russian influence and development of trade in Central Asia.
2. British intervention in Afghan affairs gave birth to three Afgthan Wars.
3. Afghanistan policy.
- Lord Auckland was the first to initiate the forward policy for Afghanistan.
- He sent Alexander Burns to king of Afghanistan Dost Ali but this Mission did not succeed.
- He initiated military campaign against the next king Dost Muhammad. By this move he could control Kabul, DostMohammad fled away. New king Shah Shuja was installed.
4. This military campaign was First Afgan War (1839).
5. Lord Lawrence initiated Policy of Masterly Inactivity. The policy refers to non intervention but being watchful.
6. Lord Lytton dropped Masterly inactivity policy & followed forward policy Second Afghan War took place in 1878 -80.
7. This war ended in 1880 before that Treaty of Gandhak in 1879Was signed Under this Treaty Lytton Placed to divide Agfhanistan into two parts.
8. Third Afghan War began in 1919& ended with Treaty of Rawalpindi (1921) during the time of lord Chelmsford.
1. Sindh was ruled by Baliuhi Tribes & rulers were Known as Amir There were three branches- Haid-erabad, Mirpur,and Khairpur.
2. Sindh Conquest It was Lord Ellenborogh in 1842 who made a plan of conquest of Sindh Charles Napier was appointed as resident in sindh in 1842 He accused the Amirs of hatching plots & conspiracies against British.
3. Issue of succession in Khairpur and British intervention gave rise to war and finally Sindh was annexed to British.