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Modern Indian History
Indian left movement : Some facts

  1. In the late 1920s and 1930s powerful leftwing group developed in India contributing to the radicalization of the Indian National Movement. Along with the political goals, it acquired a clearer and sharper economic and social content. Socialism became an accepted creed among the Indian youths and there emerged two powerful left parties, the Communist Party of India and the Congress Socialist Party.

  2. Incentive from the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 in Russia dissatisfaction of the youth from abrupt suspension of the Non-cooperation Movement and alternate Swaraj party Programmes and propagation and propagation by some of the nationalist.

  3. In Mumbai S.A. Dange brought out a pamplet. Gandhi and Lenin (first socialist weekly.

  4. In Bengal Muzzafar Ahmad brought-Navyuga and later founded Langal in cooperation which Nazrul Islam.

  5. In Punjab, Inquilab was published by Ghulam Hussain and others.

  6. In Chennai labour Krishna gazette was published by M. Singaravelau.

  7. Among the congress the left group represented by jawaharlal Nehru who became the president of the congress in 1936 and 1937 and Subhash Bose who too was President in 1938 and 1939 reflectingthefar reaching influence of the left ideologies whithin the congress.

  8. In 1927, Jawahar Lal Nehru attended Brussels congress of the Oppressed Nationalities and visited to Soviet Union.

  9. In 1928, Nehru with Subash Bose organized Independence for India League to fight for complete independence.

  10. 1921, M.N. Roy founded The Communist Party of India at Tashkant (Soviet Union).

  11. In Sept. 1924, independent of the above, Satyabhakta Ghate founded the Communist Party of India at Kanpur.

  12. In 1925, Labour Swaraj Party of the congress was founded in Bengal by Mazaffar Ahmad, Quazi nazrul Islam and Hemank Kumar Sarker.

    • In 1926, Congress Labour Party was founded in Mumbai.

    • In 1926, Kirti Kisan Party of Hindustan was founded in Chennai.

    • In 1928, Workers and Peasants Party was founded.

  13. Three conspiracy cases against the communists-

    • Peshawar conspiracy Trial 1922-23

    • Kanpur conspiracy Trial 1924

    • Meerut conspiracy Trial 1929-33

    • Formation of Central Defence Committee by the congress working committee. The case pleaded by J.L. Nehru K.M. Katju and F.H. Ansari.

  14. In 1946 the CPI put before the cabinet mission a plan of division of India into 17 separate states on the model of balkans or USSR.

    • In July 1931 Bihar Socialist Party was founded by Jaiprakash Narayan, Phulan Prasad Varma, etc.

    • In Sept. 1933-Punjab Socialist Party was founded.

    • In Oct. 1934, All India Congress Socialist Party was founded in Mumbai by N.Dev, Jaiprakash Narayan and Minoo Masani. The socialistic than the other left group in India. It sacrificed its theoretical position and took to realistic position close to Nehru; It was not anticongress but was to strengehn it. It condemned the 1935 Act, supported quit India Movement. It was not in favour of negotiated settlement for transformation of power.

  15. In March, 1939, Subhash Bose founded the Forward Block after leaving the congress due to dispute with Gandhiji.

    • In 1940 Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP) was founded which was closer to CSP.

    • In 1939 the Bolshevik Party of India by N. Dutta Mazumdar.

    • In 1942 the Revolutionary communist Party of India was founded by Soumyendranath Tagore.

    • In 1941 the Bolsevik Leninist Party was founded by Indra Sen and Ajit Roy.

    • In 1940 M.N. Roy founded another party named Radical Democratic Party.

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