(IGP) IAS Pre: GS - Indian History - Modern Indian History: Revolts & Rebellions

Modern Indian History
Revolts & Rebellions


1. Bahadur Shah II Delhi
2 Laxmi Bai Jhansi
3 Kunwar Singh Jagdishpur
4 Hazarat Mahal Lucknow
5 Maulavi Ahmadullah Faizabad
6 Tantia Tope  Gwalior  Kanpur
7 Nana Saheb Kanpur
8 Mangal Pandey  Barrackpore
9 Hakim Ahsanullah Chief Advisor to Bahadur Shah II Delhi.
10 Firuz Shah Relative of Bahadur Shah II Delhi
11 General Bakht Khan Delhi
12 Rao Sahib Kanpur
13 Azimulah Khan Kanpur
14 Ahmad Ullah Lucknow
15 Khan Bahadur Khan Bareilly
16 .Amar Singh Jagdishpur


Delhi Bahadur Shah was the nominal
leader the real command was
under General Bakht Khan.
Kanpur The revolt was led by Nana Sahib.
Battle was mainly led by Tantia
Tope. Azimullah Khan was another
loyal servant of Nana Sahib
Lucknow The revolt was led by Hazarat
Mahal the begum of Avadh, Maulvi
Ahmedullah of faizabad was also
one of the great leaders.

Rani Laxmi bai assumed the
leadership of the Sepoys. Later she
captured Gwalior with the help of
Tantia Tope and Afghan guards

Bareilli Khan Bahadur Khan proclaimed
himself as Nawab Nazim
Arrah Kunwar Singh, the ruined
Zamindar of Jagdishpur was the
main leader.


Bahadur Shah II He was arrested and deported
to Rangoon where he died in
Nana Sahib After being defeated he
refused to surrender and
escaped to Nepal in early
1859, never to be heared
Bengum Hazrat The Begum of Avadh was
compelled to hide in Nepal
after the capture of Lucknow
by campbel.
Rani Laxmi Bai The Rani of Jhansi died in the
battle field in June 1858.
Tantia Tope Tantia Tope escaped to the
jungles of central India in
April 1859. He was betrayed
by a zamindar friend and
captured and put to death
after a hurried trial on 15th
April 1859.
Kunwar Singh The leader of the revolt in
Bihar died on 9th May 1859
after successfully carrying on
the revolt.


  • Gen. John Nicholsan Delhi
  1. Henry Benard and Brig. Wilson besieged Delhi
  2. Accession of Kashmiri gate by J.Nicholsan and captured city embrance and Delhi.
  3. Bahadurshah and killed his sons and grandsons
  • Maj. Hudson Killed bhadur Shah’s sons and grand sons in Delhi
  •  Sir Hugh WheelerDefence against Nana Saheb’s forces in the beginning
  • Gen. Neil Kanpur (killed Indians as a revenge against the killing of English by Nana Shahib’s forces), Banaras, Allahabad.
  •  Sir Colin Compbell Final recovery of Kanpur on 6th December 1857 captured Lucknow on 21st March 1858.
  • Henry Lawrence Chief Commissioner of Awadh (died)
  • Maj. Gen. Havelok Dfeated the rebels (Nana Saheb’s force) on 17th July 1857.
  • William Taylor Suppressed the revolt at Arrah in August 1857.
  • Hugh RoseSuppressed the revolt at Jhansi

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Disraeli A national revolt
Dr. Tarachand Specially medieval but efforts to powerless
class get their lost power.
J.Outaram & W.Taylor A Hindu-Muslim conspir cy
Jawaharlal Nehru Not onlymutiny, formed the shape of Civil Rebelion
 the real form was of feudalistic though some nationalisitc
elements were also present
Maulana Abdul Kalam Indian national character had sank very low.
R.C. Majumdar Neither first nor national nor war of Independence
S.N. Sen Inherited in the constitution of British Rule an effort by the
conservative elements to turn back the clock.
T.R. Holmes Conflict between civilization and Barbarism
V.D. Savarkar First war of Indian Independence.


S.N.Sen 1857
P.C. Joshi  Rebellion,  1857
H.P. Chattopdhyaya The Sepoy Mutiny, 1857
A.T. Embree 1857 in India
B.C. Majumdar The Sepoy Mutiny and the Revolt of 1857
S.B. Choudhury Civil Rebellion in the Indian Mutinies,
1857-59 Theories of the Indian Mutiny
Etic Stokes The Peasent and the Raj
Maulan Abdul Kalam Azad Eighteen Fifty Seven
V.D. Savarkar The Indian war of Independence 1857
Ashok Mehta 1857 a great Revolt
John Caye History of Sepoy war
Holms Sepoy war


Chuar (Midnapur, Bengal 1766- 1772 & 1795-1816)
Hos (Singhbhum 1820, 1822 & 1832)
Kol (Chottanagpur 1831-1832) led by Buddhu Bhagat
Ahom (Assam 1828-33) Led by Gomadhar Konwar
Khasi (Khasi Hills-Assam and Meghalaya 1829-32) Led by
Triat Singh and Bar Manik.
Bhills Khandesh 1817-19, 1825, 1831, 1847) Led by Sewaram
agaist the company owing to agrarian hardship.
Kolis (Sahyadri Hills-Gujrat- Maharashtra 1824, 1829,
1839, 1844-48)
Koyas Rampa Godavari region of Andhra Pradesh 1840, 1845,
1858, 1861-62, 1879, 1880, 1896, 1916, 1922-24). In
1922-24 Led by Alluri Sitarmaraju.
Santhais (Rajmahal Hills-Santhal Pargana, Bihar 1855-56) led
by Sindhu and Kanhu.
Naikda (Panch Mahals-Gujarat 1858-59 and 1868) led by Rup
Singh and Joria Bhagat
Kacha Naga (Cachar-Assam 1882) led by Sambhudam

Chotanagpur 1899-90. Known as ulgulan led by
Birsa Munda against the erosion of their Kuntkatti
land system, recruitment of forced labour (Beth-Begar)
and against the activities of the Christian missionary.
They attacked churches and police station. Birsa Munda
was taken prisoner by the British and the movement
was suppressed.

Bhils (Banswara, Suthi Dungarpur-Rajasthan 1913)
led by Govind Guru
Oraons (Chottanagpur 1914-15) led by Jatra Bhagat and Tana Bhagat
Kukis (Manipur 1917-19) led by Jadonang
Ramoshi In 1822-29 they rose against deposition of Raja Pratap
Singh of Satara in 1839
Chanchus (1921-22) in Andhra Pradesh.
Sapha Har Among the Santhals in 1870's, earlier in 1855 by
Sidhu and Kanhu against Dikus.
Pahariyas The British expansion on their territory led to an
uprising by the martial Pahariyas of the Raj Mahal
Hills in 1778
Kharwar The Kharwars of Bihar in the 1870s.
Bhuyan and Juang The first uprising of 1867-68 was under the leadership of
Ratna Nayak
Singphos Assam in early 1830
Zeliangsong The Zeliangsong Movement of the Manipur Nagar was
launched by the Zemi, Liangmei and Rongmei
Naga Under Jodanang (1905-31). The other leader was
Gaidinliu who fed the Heraka cult.


Farazi Movement Led by Haji Shariatullah and his son Dadu Mian degeneration of Islamic Faridpur, East Bengal society and loss of power to theBritish. It supported the cause of tenants against theZamindara Dadu Mian was finally arrested and confined to Alipore jail.
Godkari Rebllion Assumption of direct administration of Kolhapur by British and (Kalhapru 1844-45) resentment of Gadkris against revenue policy. Final suppression of the movement by the British.
Pagal Panthis Led by Karan Shah and his son. Tipu. A semi-religious sect. Rose against the oppression of the Zamindars.
Led by Srendra Sai, inter-ference of British in the internal affairs of (Orissa 1840-41) Sambalpur, Surendra Sai was finally arrested and imporiosned by the British (1840)
Sanyasi Revolt Led by religious monks and dispossed zamindars.
Against restrictions (Bengal1760-1800) imposed by the
English company on visit ofholy place and ruin of peasent and zamindars.
The Kuka Revolt The Kuka movement started as a religious movement
though it later began to acquire political overtone. The movement was began in 1840 by Bhagat JawaharMal or Sian Saheb in West Punjab. The movement aimed to purge Sikhism of its by preaching abolition of castes and similar discriminations and discouraging the eatheg of meat and taking of drugs. Woman were encouraged to step out of seclusion. After the British conquered thePunjab, the movement began to focus on achievingSikh sovereignty. The British followed extremely repressive measures from 1862 to 1872 to suppress the movement.


All India Kissan Sabha Founded at Lucknow in 1936 with Shajananda Saraswati
as its first Chairman. It main demands included50% cut in revenuerents, full occupancy right to tenants abolition of begar and restoration of customary forest rights.
Bijolia Movement Leaders Sitaram Das, Vijay Pathak Singh. Manik Lal Verma & Haribabu (Rajasthan 1905, 1913, Upadhya. The
movement arose due to the imposition of 86 different types 1916, 1927) of cesses on the Kisans. The peasants refused to pay cesses and cultivate their land tried to migrate to neighbouring areas. In 1927, peasant adopted satyagrah
methods to fight fresh cessed & begar.
Borsad Satyagraha Led by Vallabhai Patel. Against the Bombay governments
decision to hike (Gujarat 1928) The revenue on cotton by 22 percentwhile its prices declined in the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market. The peasant organised on revenue move-ment. Ultimately the government gave up their plans to revise the rate.
Champaran Satyagraha It was the movement of indigo peasants (working under tinnkathiya system) (Bihar 1917) against the oppression of the planters. Gandhi asked the peasants to resort to satyagraha
Deccan Riots Led by traditional headmen (Patel) The fall in the prices of cotton and (Maharashtra and Six hike in land revenue forced the peasants to take loans on high ratesb from Taluks of Poona & Gujarat and Marwari money lenders. The movement took the formof A h m e d n a g a r District) forceful seizure & buming of debt bonds by peasants.
Eka Movement Founded by Madari Pasi. The main demands of the movement was (Avadh (1921) conversion of pro-duce (batai) into cash.
Forest Satyagrah Led by N.V. Rama Naidu and N.G. Ranga. It was started
against the (South India 1931) oppressive zamindars.
Indigo Revolt Led by Bishnu Biswas and Diagambar Biswas. It was the revolt of indigo (Bengal 1859-60) peasants against the British painters and their oppression refusal to take advances and enter into contract.
Kaira (Kheda) Satyagraha Leader Vallabhai Patel. The peasants arose against the demand of land raha (Gujarat 1918) revenue inspite of crop failure. The peasant collectively refused to pay lan revenue Government was forced to offer terms acceptable to the peasants.
Moplah Uprising Leader  Sayyed Alwi & Sayyid Fazi. The movement arose against the (Malabar 1836-54) vastly enhanced rights of Hindu Namboodri & Nair Jenmis which had 1896, 1921) worsened the condition of Muslim lease holders and  cultivators the Moplahs. the Moplahs attacked the Jenmis property & temples it was purely agrarian in nature.
Oudh Kisaan Sabha Founded by Gauri Shankar Mishra, Main leader Baba Ramchandra. The (Uttar Pradesh 1920) o r g a n i z a t i o n demanded abolition of begar, reduction of rents and social boycott of oppressive zamindars.
Pabna Movement Bangal
Led by Ishwar (1870-80) Chandra Roy, Shambhu Pal and
 Khoodi Mollah. The movement rose as a result of high increase in zamindari rent. The peasant demanded changes in measurement standard, abolition of abwabs and re duction in rent.
Ramosi Movement Led by Vasudev Balwant Phadke. Owing to hardship caused to the (Maharashtra 1879) peasants by the Deccan famine of 1876-77 Phadke organised the Ramosi peasants & revolted against the British and thought of establishing a Hindu Raj.
Tabhaga Movement To miplement the Flaud Commission recommendations of Tebhaga that is (Bengal 1964-47) 2/3 of crop to the bargadars working on the land rented from the jotadars.
Telegana Movement Biggest peasants guirella war in the indian history. It rose against the (Andhra Pradesh exploitation of peasant by Desmukh and Hagirdars. The movement retained 1946-48) dimensions of national liberation struggle against the Nizams
U.P. Kisan Sabha Founded by Indra Narayan Dwivedi & Gowi Shankar  Mishra. The (1918) organization was against the threat of bedakhli eviction and the Jajmani system.

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