(IGP) IAS Pre: GS - Indian History - Modern Indian History: Revolutionary Terrorism

Modern Indian History
Revolutionary Terrorism

  • A whole generation of nationalist youth were attracted to revolutionary terrorism because they were angered by repression
  • Convinced of the futility of the moderate path.
  • Impatient with the inability of the extremists to either extract immediate concessions from the government or to achieve full scale mobilisation of masses.
  • 1897 Chapekar brothers of Poona-Damodar and Balkrishna-assassinated two British officers.
  • By 1904, V.D. Savarkar and his brother Ganesh organised Mitramela and Abhinav Bharat as secret, societies. They were co-accused in Nasik and Gwalior conspiracy cases.
  • The revolutionary trend was launched in April 1908, by Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki when they threw a bomb on Kingsford.
  • Arushilan and Yugantar Samities spearheaded revolutionary activities.
  • In Madras, Vanchi Aivar of the Bharata Matha Association assassinated a British officer.
  • In London Madan Lal Dhingra killed Curzon Wylie, an India Office official.
  • Hindu Association in Portland later changed its name to Hindustan Ghadar Party.
  • The Ghadar paper carried the inscription Angrezi Raj ka Dushman.
  • The front page of each issue of Ghada carried the slogan Angrezi Raj ki Kacha Chittha.
  • An attempt was made to defy Canadian immigration laws which forbade entry to all except those who made a ‘direct passage in their ship’. Gurdit Singh, chartered a ship Komagata Maru and with 376 Indians it set for Vancouver.
  • Zimmeran Plan was formulated by Virendranath Chattopadhya, Bhupen Datta and Lala Hardyal.

Revolutionary Terrorism - Phase II

  • Sachin Sanyal, Jogesh Chatterjee and Ramprasad Bismil founded Hindustan Republican Army (HRA) at Kanpur in October 1924.
  • HRA aimed at organising an armed revolution and establishing a Federal Republic of the USA with a government elected on the basis of adult franchise.
  • Sachin Sanyal wrote ‘Bandi Jivan’.
  • Jatin Das (Sept. 1929) died after a prolonged fast of sixty three daysin jail.
  • Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was founded in September, 1928 at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi under the leadership of ChandrashekharAzad. They were also influenced socialist ideas.
  • Bhagat Singh and B.K. Dutt threw bombs in the Central Legislative Assembly on 8 April 1929 to protestagainst the passage of the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Disputes Bill. The objectives was not to kill but to make the deaf hear.
  • Bhagat Singh wrote; Why I am An Atheist.
  • After raiding Chittagong Armory Surya Sen proclaimed the formation of Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Indian Republication Army which fought at Jalalabad.
  • Two school girls of Comilla, Santi Ghosh and Suniti Chowdhary, shot dead the DM, Mr. Stevens.
  • Kalpana Datta was arrested and tried along with Surya Sen.

Person Associated with Revolutionary Terrorism

V.D. Savarkar 1904 (a) Establishment of Abhinav Bharat
  1899 (b) Foundation of Mitramela in Maharashtra
Damodar Chapekar and Balkrishna


1897 Assassination of Lt. Ayerst and


Mr. Rand at Poona
Shyamjee Krishnaverma and M. L. Dhingra 1905 (a) India House of London.


(b) Indian House rule Society in London
Prafulla Chaki and Khudiram Bose 1908 Thrown up bomb on Kingsford the judge of Muzaffarpur, who escaped unhurt
Madanlal Dhingra 1909 Assassination of Curzon-Willie in London
Hardayal and Sohan Singh Bhakna 1913 Foundation of Ghadar Party in San-Francisco, USA.
Barinder Kumar Ghosh and Bhupendra Dutta 1907 Unsucessful attempt of the murder of Lt. Governor Fuler of West Bengal
Madam Cama 1908-


(a) Foundation of Paris Society in Paris India


(b) (b) Foundation of Independent India Society


(c) Publication of Bande Matram
Taraknath Das 1909 Foundation of Indian Independent League
Vanchi Ayyer 1911 (a) Murder of District Magistrate of Tirunavalli (b) India Mother Association
Rasbihari Bose 1912 (a) Murder of Lord at Delhi Harding at the time of his Arrival
Mahendra Pratap 1915 Formation of Barkutullal and State
Abdulla Sindhi   Government of Independent India in Kabul.
Jatin Mukherjee   To capture Fort William situated on the Bank of theRiver Buri Balam in Balasore(Orissa).
Jogesh Chatterjee 1924 Foundation of Hindustan RepublicanAssociation
S.N. Sanyal 1924 Foundation of Hindustan Republican Association
Virendra Nath   Foundation of Chattopadhya Independent IndianCommittee
Champkramani   Foundation of Pillai Indian National Party
Jatindernath   Foundation of Mukherjee Yugantar Party
Kartar Singh


Sarbha Gopinath
1924 Planning of


Murder of Police Saha Commissioner of Tegrat in Kolkata
Bhagat Singh, 1928 Foundation of Jatinder Nath Ajay Hindustan Ghosh, Fannindra Socialist
Nath Ghose   Republican Army Jatindra Nath Das Lahore Conspiracy case
Lala Hardyal 1913 Foundation of Gadar Party
Vipin Chandrapal


Uddam Singh
1906 Foundation of Bande Matram Murder of Sir Michal-o-Dyer in London
Ram Prasad Bismil 1924 (a) Foundation of


(b) Hindustan


(c) Republican


(d) Association
  1925 (b) Kakori Conspiracy
Ashafkulla 1925 Kakori Conspiracy
Roshan Lal 1925 Kakori Conspiracy
Surya Sen 1930 Chittagong Conspiracy
Chandrashekhar 1932 (a) Self Shooting during the encounter with the Police at Alfred Park at Allahabad
Azad 1928 (b) Hindustan






Bhagat Singh 1928 (a) Killing of Saunder
  1929 (b) Throwing of a bomb in the central Legislative Assembly
  1929 (c) Punjab


Naujawan Bharat


Raj Guru 1928 Killing of Saunders
Batukeshwar Dutta 1929 Throwing of a


bomb in the






Jatin Das 1929 64 days Hunger



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