Modern Indian History
Rise of Autonomous States
Rise of Bengal
1. Murshid Quli Khan
- Founded the independent state of Bengal in 1717.
- transferred capital from Dacca to Murshidabad.
- suppressed the revolts of local zamindars such as Udai Narayan,Sita Ram Rai, Sujat Khan and other.
2. Aliwardi khan.
- concluded peace with the Marathas, paid chauth of Bengal(Rs.12 lakh).
- prevented the English and the French from misusing their privileges and fortifying factories.
- Black Hole episode in which 23 out of 146 English prisoners died (According to Holwell)
- seized English factory at Kasimbazar and Calcutta
- signed Treaty of Alinagar (Feb,1757) with British
- some of persons who conspired with the British against Siraj-ud-daula
Mir jafar Mir Bakshi
Manikchand Officer-in-charge of Calcutta
Omichand A rich merchant of Calcutta
Jagat seth A famous Benker of Bangal
Rai Durlabh Nobel
- fought Battle of Plassey (June, 1757) against
- Colonel Clive and Admiral Watson.
- captured & slain by Miran son of Mir Jafar.
- captured Fort William, Placed Calcutta under Manik Chand and renamed the city of Calcutta as Alinagar
- by Treaty of Alinagar, he gave to the British-former privileges of made permission to fortify Calcutta huge compensation
- British indirectly supported the claim of Ghasiti Begum.
- In the battle of plassey two faithful soldiers of the Nawab Mir Manad and Mohal Lal fought bravely.
4. Mir Jafar
- granted the right to free trade in Begal, Bihar and Orissa and Zamindari of 24 parganas to the British.
- forced to abdicate because of direct confimation with in East India company in order to company’s relentless drive for more revenues in Bengal.
- surrendered all French settlements to the British.
- could not punish Diwan Rai Durlabh andDeputy Governor of Bihar Ram Narayan due to British intervention.
- intrigued with the Dutch to oust the British but the Dutch were defeated as Bedara 1759.
- preferred to reside at Calcutta after forgoing the pension of Rs. 1500 per month.
- Mir Qasim signed an agreement with the acting Governor Holwell in 1760 by which-
- ceded districts or Burdwan, Midnapur and Chittagong to the British.
- agreed to give Rs. 5 lakhs to the Company for fighting in the South India.
8. was reinstated in 1763 by the British on certain conditions.
9. agreed not to disturb the company gornastas (Agents).
5. Mir Qasim
- granted Zamindari of Burdwan, Midnapre and Chittagong to the British.
- transferred capital from Murshidabad to Manghyr in1762
- abolished all duties on ionternal trade British wishes in order to protect the Indian traders.
- fought Battle of Buxar (Oct. 1764) againstMajor Hector Munro in alliance with Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-daula.
- got the Nawabship through a secret deal with theEnglish and faced the same fate like Mir Jafar.
- remodelled the army, established a fire arms manufactory.
- disbanded the troops which had served previous Nawabs and whose loyalty was suspected.
- attempted to modenise army, established fire locks and gun-factory at Monghyr.
- imposed addtion taxes-1&1/2 annas as crown rents and Khajiri-Jama.
- after being defated at Buxar, signed Treaty of Allahabad with the British in 1765.
- fled to a Awadh.
- deposition and execution of Mir Qasim was followed by the restoration of Mir Jafar.
Rise of Awadh
- Sadat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk
- founded the independent state of Awadh in 1722.
- committed suicide.
- Wazir of Mughal empire.
- from 1748 the Nawabs of Awadh came to be known as the Nawab Wazir since they held the post of Nawab of Awadh & Wazir of the Mughal empire at the same time.
- concluded the Treaty of Benaras with Warrer Hastiugs(1773).
- tried to consolidate the basis of autonomous political system in Awadh.
- provided shelter to the fugitive Mughal emperor Shah Alam II.
- in alliance with the Nawab of Bengal the Mughal emperor fought the Battle of Buxur against the British (1764).
- signed Treaty of Allahabad (1765) by which-
- gave Allahbad and Kora to the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II
- paid Rs. 50 lakh as indemnity
- confirmed Balwant Singh, Zamindar of Benaras to his state.
6. annexed Rohilkhand in 1774 with the help of the British.
- transferred capital from Faizabad to Lucknow (1775).
Wazid Ali Shah (1847-56)
- was himself a poet and expert in Kathak dance.
- annexation of Awadh by Dalhausie in 1856 on the ground of misgovernment.
- pesnsioned off and deported to Calcutta.
- son of Wqjid Ali Shah.
- rebels of 1857 enthroned his to the Nawab of Awadh.
Rise of Hyderabad
Chin Qullie Khan (1724-48)
- founder of Hyderabad as an independent state in 1724.
- was conferred the title Khan-i-Dauran and later Nizam-ul-Mulk by Farukksiyar.
- Wazir of theMughals (1722-24) during the reign of Md. Shah.
- was conferred the title Asaf Jah by Md. Shah.
Rise of Mysore
Haider Ali (1761-28)
- began his carrier as a soldier in Mysore state which become independent of the Vijayanagara empire in 1565 under HinduWodeyar Dynasty.
- founder of Mysore as an independent state in 1761 with its capital Seringapatnam after overthrowing the real power behind the Mysore throne, the minister Nunjaraj.
- with the help of the French tried to strengthen organization discipline in army.
- fought First Anglo-Mysore war and died during the Second Anglo-Mysore War.
- after First Anglo-Mysore war in 1767-69 signed humiliating treaty with the British (Treaty of Madras).
- in the second battle of Anglo-Mysore, he was defeated by the British at Porto Novo i 1781 by Eyre Coote but he defeated them in 1782.
- set up arsenal factory at Dindigul with the help of the French.
- defeated by the Peshwa in 1764, 1766 and 1771 but after Peshwa’s death (1772) he recovered his territories.
- continued Second-Anglo Mysore war.
- introduced new system of coinage. new scales of weight & measures and a new calendar.
- attempted to set up a trading company on European lines.
- sent ambassadors to foreign countries to develop trade.
- organised infantry on European lines and attempted to build a modern navy.
- showed interest in French Revolution-planted the Tree of Liberty at seringapatm and became a member of the Jacobian club.
- called Sher-E-Mysore.
- defeated by Comawalls with the help of the Marathas and Nizam of Hydrabad, in 1791.
- he lost Third Anglo-Mysore war and signed Treaty of Seringapatnam (1792) by which he lost about half to the territories of the British.
- defeated in Fourth Anglo-Mysore war (1798-99) Wellesley. Tipu died his family was deported to Vellore.
- his territories were divided between British and Nizamof Hyderabad.
- a boy of royal family (Wodeyar) was installed on the Mysore throne and a subsidary treaty was signed.
- was first to apply western method in the organisation of administration.
- had no post of Wazir.
- administration was divided into 7 principal departments each under a Mir Asif.
- provinces were called Turkis.
- established 3 dockyards at Mangalore Wazirabad and Molidabad.
- he used to say “I can ruin their (British) resources by and but I can not dry up the sea.
- adopted title of Padshah in 1787.
- repaired the temple of Goddess Sharda after it was destroyed by the Marathas.
- he had temples of Sri Rangnatha, Narsimha and Gongadhareshwa within his fort.
Rise of Sikh state
- Rise of Sikhs under gurus.
- Organisation of Sikhs into 12 Misls (Confederacies).
- Zakaria Khan, the governor of Lahor, had tried to establish and independent political system in Punjab.
- The Sikhs organised themselves into numerous small and highly mobile jathas and posed serious challenge to the Mughal imperial authority.
- laid foundation of Punjab as an independent state in 1792.
- belongs to Sukerchakia Misl.
- captured Lathore with the help of Zaman Shah of Afganistan.
- captured Amritsar, added golden dome to the golden temple.
- establishment of control over all the missals west of Satluj.
- occupation of Ludhiana-British intervention and mission of Metcalf.
- Treaty of Amritsar (1809) Ranjit Singh agreed to confine his activities to the west of the Satluj.
- acquired Kohinoor from Shah Shuja of Afganistan after giving him protection.
- Tripartite treaty (1838) with Lord Aurckland and Shah Shuja to latter on the throne of Afganistan by invasion.
- organisation of his army on western lines. His army was second best army in Asia.
- his successors were Kharak Singh, Nao Nihal Singh, Sher Singh, Dalip Singh.
- enlisted Gorukhas into the army after 1837.
- refused a passage to the British army through his territory.
- designated his government as Sarkar-i- Khatsaji.
- struck coins in the name of Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh.
- provinces were under Nazim and districts under Kardar.
- justice department was called Adalat-i-Ala.
- founded heavy gun factories a Lahore and Amritsar.
- raised Fauj-i-Khas under general ventura and allazd.
- his foreign minister Fakir Azizuddin.
- his Diwan Dinnanath.
- his Prime Minister Dhian Singh Degro, who enjoyed the title of Raja.