(Paper) CDS: English Comprehension Solved Exam Paper (II) - 2005

Combined Defence Services

General English Solved Paper II: 2005


Directions (For the 20 items which follows) : In this section you have four short passages. After each passage, you will find several questions based on the passage. First, read Passage I, and answer the questions based on it. Then go on to the other passages. You are required to select your answers based on the contents of the passage and opinion of the author only. Examples ‘I’ and ‘J’ are solved for you.


In our approach to life, be it pragmatic or otherwise, a basic fact that confronts us squarely and unmistakably is the desire for peace, security and happiness. Different forms of life at different levels of existence make up the teeming denizens of this earth of ours. And, no matter whether they belong to the higher groups such as human .beings or to the lower groups such as animals, all beings primarily seek peace, comfort and security. Life is as dear to a mute creature as it is to a man. Even the lowliest insect strives for protection against dangers that threaten its life. Just as each one of us wants to live and not to die, so do all other creatures.
I. The author’s main point is that

(a) different forms of life are found on earth
(b) different levels of existence are possible in nature
(c) peace and security are the chief goals of all living beings
(d) even the weakest creature struggles to preserve its life

J. Which one of the following assumptions or steps is essential in developing the author’s position ?
(a) All forms of life have a single overriding goal
(b) The will to survive of a creature is identified with a desire for peace
(c) All beings are divided into higher and lower groups
(d) A parallel is drawn between happiness and life, and pain and death


I. The idea which represents the author’s main point is “peace and security are the chief goals of all living beings”, which is response (c). So (c) is the correct answer.

J. The best assumption underlying the passage is “The will to survive of a creature is identified with a desire for peace”, which is response (b) . So (b) is the correct answer.

Passage: I

With the United States watching from the sidelines, negotiators from more than 160 countries including UK, Japan and Russia have reached an agreement on a ground-breaking climate control treaty setting mandatory targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The talks had nearly collapsed and negotiators had to satisfy the last-minute demands of Japanese, Russians and Australians for more flexibility in the rules and other economic advantages in order to close the deal. A major shot in the arm came when Russia announced that it would be ratifying the treaty. Russia was one of a four-member tactical alliance, also including Australia, Canada and Japan, which had been demanding huge concessions and were seen as lukewarm on ratification. The Bush administration however, continues to oppose the treaty on the ground that it would harm the US economy while exempting developing countries, including India and China, from mandatory emission targets. The alternative that the White House has proposed is increased spending for scientific research and incentives for developing new technology to reduce emissions. White House had said it wanted a revision of the global warming treaty but the US delegation arrived at the conference with no new offers and largely stayed in the background while the talks proceeded haltingly. However, there have been dissenting voices in the US. Many people in the US think that while the US is gathering support for war on terrorism it cannot turn its back on an important issue like greenhouse gas emissions.
The treaty’s mandatory emissions cuts would most heavily penalize highly industrialized countries. The mechanisms were designed to help those countries by reducing their quota by expanding forests and farmlands that absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. A major breakthrough came when all sides agreed on an enforcement mechanism whereby countries that failed to meet their goals would have their emissions reduction targets raised by 1.3 per cent.

1. Consider the following statements:
The Bush administration

1. has set a war on terrorism to be a pre-condition for ratifying the climatic control treaty
2. wants the issue of ozone layer depletion to be included in the treaty
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

2. Consider the following statements:
The solution to solve the problem of greenhouse gas emissions, suggested by the United States

1. is to expand the forest cover
2. is to provide higher outlay for research
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

3. What does the phrase “shot in the arm” imply ?
(a) Victory (b) Boost
(c) Caution (d) Precondition

4. Which of the following is/are assumed in the passage ?
1. Carbon dioxide emissions can be quantified.
2. Greenhouse gas emissions are deleterious for the environment.
Select the correct answer by using the following code
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

5. Consider the following statements:
1. The Bush administration believes that no amount of forest cover can counter the effect of carbon dioxide emission.
2. Domestic opinion in the US is unanimous in opposing the treaty because of parochial considerations.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Passage: II

Alleviation of rural poverty has been one of the primary objectives of planned development in India. Ever since the inception of planning, the policies and the programmes have been designed and redesigned with this aim. The problem of rural poverty was brought into a sharper focus during the Sixth Plan. The Seventh Plan too emphasized growth with social justice.
It was realised that a sustainable strategy of poverty alleviation has to be based on increasing the productive employment opportunities in the process of growth itself. However, to the extent the process of growth bypasses some sections of the population, it is necessary to formulate specific poverty alleviation programmes for generation of a certain minimum level of income of the rural poor.
Rural development implies both the economic betterment of people and greater social transformation. Increased participation of people in the rural development process, decentralisation of planning, better enforcement of land reforms and greater access to credit and inputs go a long way in providing the rural people with better prospects for economic development. Improvements in health, education, drinking water, energy supply, sanitation and housing coupled with attitudinal changes also facilitate their social development.
Rural poverty is inextricably linked with low rural productivity and unemployment, including underemployment. Hence, it is imperative to improve productivity and increase employment in rural areas. Moreover, more employment needs to be generated at higher levels of productivity in order to generate higher output. Employment at miserably low levels of productivity and income is already a problem of far greater magnitude than unemployment as such. It is estimated that in 1987-88, the rate of unemployment was only 3 per cent and inclusive of underemployment, it was around 5 per cent. As per the currently used methodology in the Planning Commission, poverty for the same year was estimated to be 30 per cent. This demonstrates that even though a large proportion of the rural population was working it was difficult for them to eke out a living even at subsistence levels. It is true that there has been a considerable decline in the incidence of rural poverty over time. In terms of absolute numbers of the poor, the decline has been much less. While this can be attributed to the demographic factor, the fact remains that after 40 years of planned development about 200 million are still poor in rural India.

6. Rural poverty is associated with which of the following factors ?
1. Poor effectiveness of productive efforts
2. Better sanitation and housing facilities
3. Lack of technical education for the rural youth
4. Dearth of employment opportunities
Select the correct answer, using the code given below
(a) 1 and 4 (b) 3 and 4
(c) 1 and 2 (d) 1,2 and 3

7. Consider the following statements
1. Rural development implies social change coupled with economic upliftment.
2. Before the Sixth Plan, the policies regarding alleviation of rural poverty were almost non-existent.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

8. Which one of the following is not stated in the passage as an important factor for rural development ?
(a) Involvement of the rural people in the development process
(b) Better enforcement of land reforms
(c) Greater access to credit
(d) Setting heavy industrial units in the rural areas

9. What does the passage mainly deal with ?
(a) The methodology used by the Planning Commission
(b) Strategies for industrial growth
(c) Population policy
(d) Improving the economic conditions for the rural populations

10. Which one of the following is relevant to formulation of a specific poverty alleviation programme ?
(a) The sharper focus given in the Sixth Plan
(b) Directives from the World Bank
(c) Certain sections of the population are not covered in the process of growth
(d) None of the above

11. Which one of the following inferences can be drawn from the passage ?
(a) Alleviation of rural poverty needs a strong political will
(b) The development activities during the past 40 years have all been futile
(c) The number of rural poor people in India is quite substantial
(d) The unemployment situation in the country has been worsening year after year

12. What is the desired impact of formulation of specific poverty alleviation programmes?
(a) Provision of good education facilities for the rural youth
(b) Ensuring certain minimum income for the rural poor
(c) Attitudinal changes for the rural people
(d) Increased involvement of the rural people in development activities

13. Which one of the following has not been stated to be contributing towards facilitating social development ?
(a) Health (b) Energy supply
(c) Education
(d) Political awareness

Passage: III

One simple physical concept lies behind the formation of the stars : gravitational instability. The concept is not new; Newton first perceived it late in the 17th century. Imagine a uniform static cloud of gas in space. Imagine then that the gas is somehow disturbed so that one small spherical region become a little denser than the gas around it so that the small region’s gravitational field becomes slightly stronger. It now attracts more matter to it and its gravity increases further, causing it to begin to contract. As it contracts its density increases, which increases its gravity even more, so that it picks up even more matter and contracts even further. The process continues until the small region of gas finally forms a gravitationally bound object.

14. How does the author view the information contained within it ?
(a) Controversial
(b) Recent startling revelation
(c) Well-established and traditional
(d) Not well understood

15. What is the main theme of the passage ?
(a) Support of an outmoded theory
(b) Depiction of the successive stages of a phenomenon
(c) Demonstration of the evolution of the meaning of a term
(d) None of the above

16. Consider the following
1. What causes the disturbance that changes the cloud from its original static state ?
2. What is the end result of a small region of gas becoming a little denser than the gas around it ? Which of the above is/are explained in the passage ?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Passage: IV

A good way of ridding yourself of certain kinds of dogmatism is to become aware of opinions held in social circles different from your own. When I was young, I lived much outside my own country in France, Germany, Italy and the United States.
I found this very profitable in diminishing the intensity of insular prejudice. If you cannot travel, seek out people with whom you disagree, and read a newspaper belonging to a party that is not yours. If the people and the newspaper seem mad, perverse and wicked, remind yourself that you seem so to them.

17. The author thinks that the best way to get rid of dogmatism is to
(a) participate in academic discussion of high standard
(b) share views with like-minded people
(c) interact with people who subscribe to different societal norms
(d) mix with the people who are not swayed by materialism

18. What does insular prejudice refer to in the above passage ?
(a) Chimerical ideas of some people
(b) Narrow-minded likes or dislikes
(c) Fierce competitiveness in the modern world
(d) Resistance to change

19. What does dogmatism imply in the above passage
(a) Belief that the doctrines of one’s religion must be upheld
(b) A rigid assertion of one’s own opinion
(c) Futuristic vision
(d) A dislike for the mankind

20. According to the passage given above, if a person wants to have a balanced view, he should
(a) read newspaper which does not subscribe to his way of thinking
(b) read newspaper which represents the point of view of the minority
(c) read newspaper of one’s choice
(d) read newspaper of the highest circulation

Answers: 1. (d) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (a) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (d) 0. (c) 10. (c) 12. (b) 13. (d) 14. (c) 15. (b) 16. (b) 17. (c) 18. (b) 19. (b) 20. (a)


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