(Download) Special Material For Punjab PSC Pre Exam, 2012 [Green Revolution in Punjab]

Punjab Public Service Commission

Special Material For Punjab Public Service Commission (PPSC) Pre Exam, 2012

Topic :  Green Revolution in Punjab

After 1966, agricultural production, especially production of foodgrains, increased at a rapid pace. This increase continues till this day. This consistent increase in agricultural production is called Green Revo/ mime.

1. What is meant by Green Revolution?

Green Revolution implies large increase in agricultural production, which is the result of new agricultural strategy. Green Revolution thus refers to (1) Tremendous increase in agricultural production and (2) Maintenance
of high level of agricultural production over long period.

Changes that took place in agricultural production in 1967-68, were more spectacular and rapid than the changes during the last 16 years of planning. Hence these changes were referred to as Green Revolution. In short, Green Revolution means that spectacular increase in agricultural production in the sixth decade, which could be made possible by the use of HY V seeds and the new technique of chemical fertilizers in the short period. In 1965-66, production of food grains in Punjab was 33.89 lakh tonnes that increased to 119 lakh tonnes in 1971-72. In this way, within a period of ve years production of foodgrains increased three times. In the year 2003-04, production of food grains increased to 247.24 lakh tonnes. Increase in agricultural production continues uninterrupted in Punjab.

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Causes of Green Revolution:

(i) HYV seeds: High yielding varieties of seeds have played a great role in increasing agricultural production in Punjab. These seeds were introduced in 1966 for the production of wheat, rice, bajra, make and jowar. As result of the use of these seeds per hectare production has increased a lot. For instance, per hectare yield of wheat has increased from 12 quintals to 45 quintals and that of rice from 10 quintals to 35 quintals. Thus use of HYV seeds has helped in accelerating the pace of Green Revolution. Punjab Agricultural University has played a signi cant role in this respect.

(ii) Fertilizers: Use of chemical fertilizers  has also increased production of food grains very much. In 1957-68, chemicals fertilizers were used in Punjab to the extent of 99 thousand tonnes. In 2003-04, their use increased to 1,543 thousand tonnes. Use of chemical fertilizers has thus increased by 15 times.

(iii) Irrigation: Increase in the area of irrigation has also in uenced Green Revolution a great deal. In the year 1965- 66, irrigation facility was available over an area of 22 lakh hectares. In 2003- 04, this facility was available to 77 lakh hectares of land. This had a favourable effect on Green Revolution. Tubewellirrigation has increased very much in Punjab.

(iv) Multiple cropping: Proper arrangement of irrigation and use of HYV Seeds have enabled the farmers to grow more than one crop in a year. For example, after the  harvest of wheat in April, moong is sownin the same  eld. It matures within  two months and is followed by the sowing of rice and sugarcane. Due to multiple cropping, production of foodgrain has risen very much. (v) Agricultural machinery: Use of modem agricultural machinery has also increased a great deal. For instance, tractors, harvesters, pumping-sets, tubewells, etc are seen everywhere. Use of HYV seeds and multiple cropping were facilitated by the progressive use of modern machinery. Agriculture in Punjab has been mechanized on a largescale, as is evident from the increasing use of tractors, threshers, combine harvesters and other machines.

(vi) Credit facilities: Farmers have been getting more credit facilites. Previously, they used to get 80 per cent of their credit needs met through the moneylenders at a very high rate of interest. But now agricultural credit institutions at a very low rate of interest meet a major part of their needs. Cheap credit facilities to the farmers enabled them to buy more and more of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, machines etc. They were also enabled to arrange minor irrigation for their parched lands.

(vii) New techniques: Through Intensive Agriculture District Programme (IADP) etc farmers have been given training in improved methods of cultivation. Indian Agriculture Research institute and Punjab Agricultural University have also been doing intensive research in this respect. Under new agricultural strategy much attention is being paid to crop rotation, use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, water etc.

(viii) Research:  In the post independence period research has been conducted in connection with different problems of agriculture. Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana has made a signi cant contribution to this eld. The University has not only evolved better quality seeds in respect to wheat and rice but has also evolved good variety of seeds in respect of cotton, gram, maize, sugarcane, fodder, oilseeds, fruit and vegetables.

(ix) Plant protection: In Punjab previously there was hardly any arrangement to protect the plants against plant diseases. Consequently crops used to be  damaged on a large scale. But now there are adequate arrangements to protect the plant against diseases and pests. Different types of medicines are sprayed on the crops. Aerial spraying is also done with the help of aeroplanes. There is dispensary at Punjab Agricultural University to dispense medicines against plant diseases.

(x) Marketing facilities: Farmers were compelled to sell their agricultural produce in unregulated markets in the past where they got unremunerative prices of their produce. So they could not spend much on the development of agriculture. But now there is a lot of improvement in the marketing of agricultural produce. As many as 144 Regulated markets have been setup in Punjab. Farmers can now store their produce in warehouses and cold storages.

(xi) Price incentives: Bumper harvest may lead to fall in agricultural prices of different agricultural prices adversely affecting future production. To avoid this eventuality, every year minimum prices of different agricultural crops are  xed by the Agriculture Cost and Price Commission appointed by the government. Government itself buys agricultural produce at the minimum price  xed by the commission, through its different agencies, like, Food Corporation of India, Markfed Punsup etc. These agencies do not allow the prices of foodgrains to fall below the minimum  xed by the Commission.

(xii) Institutional reforms: Several institutional reforms have been undertaken in Punjab in agricultural sector, consolidation of holding, abolitition of intermediaries etc. The scattered holdings of the farmers have been consolidated in one or two large holdings. It becomes easier for the farmer to arrange for irrigation facilities on this large holding situated at one place. Intensive cultivation thus becomes possible. Abolition of Zamindari or intermediaries has provided the actual cultivator with a new enthusiasm to work hard, as he and he will now enjoy the fruit of his labour alone. Institutional Reforms have thus gone a long way in rendering Punjab's agrairan economy progressive.

2. Effects or Achievements of Green Revolution Green Revolution has in uenced Punjab's economy very much. It has provided a new dimension to Punjab economy. Its main effects are

(i) Increase in production: As a result of Green Revolution in the year 1969- 70 and thereafter, production of crops increased rapidly.

(ii) Capitalistic farming: Financial resources are needed to take full advantage of Green Revolution. Only those farmers who have more than 10 hectares of land can spare these resources. There are about 10.27 lakh farms in Punjab, of which 12 per cent farms measure between 5 and 10 hectares and 7.2 per cent farms measure more than 10 hectares. It is the latter category of farmers who have enjoyed the maximum bene t of the Green Revolution.

(iii) Prosperity of the farmers: Economic conditions of the farmers have improved substantially as a result of Green Revolution. Their standard of living has gone up. Agriculture is now regarded as a pro table occupation. Demand for consumer goods in Punjab has increased.. Demand for high quality goods and luxuries have also gone up.

( iv) Development of industries: Green Revolution has promoted the development of industries in Punjab.Industries producing agricultural tools and implements have developed appreciably. Big factories producing tractors, diesel engines, pumping-sets have been installed.

(v) Increase in per hectare productivity: Green Revolution contributed considerably to the increase in per hectare productivity. Per hectare productivity of almost all crops namely, wheat, rice, cotton, bajra, gram, maize
etc has increased many times. It is mainly due to increasing use of better quality seeds, chemical fertilizers, irrigation, mechanisation of agriculture etc. Defects of Green Revolution Main defects of Green Revolution are as

(i) Limited crops: Increase in agricultural production is con ned to a few crops like wheat, rice, bajra, maize, etc.  Production of commercial crops like sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds etc has not increased much.

(ii) Bene t to big farmers: Increase in agricultural production due to Green Revolution has bene tted only rich and big farmers. Poor farmers could not take advantage of it. They are not so resourceful as to buy HYV seeds and fertilizers in black market. Due to scarcity of these inputs, black marketing in their sales has vitiated agricultural atmosphere. Gap between rich and poor has further widened. Thus the main objective of Five Year Plans that is reduction in the inequalities of wealth and income has failed miserably in the  rural areas of Punjab.

(iii) Unfavourable social effects: There are several unfavourable social effects of Green Revolution. For instance:  (1) Joint family system is disintegrating. (2) Lavish expenditures on the occasion of marriage and other social functions have adversely affected marginal and medium farmers (3) Capitalist farming is on the increase. (4) Liquor and drug addiction are rampant. Small farmers are  nding it dif culty to make two ends meet.

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