Punjab Public Service Commission
Special Material For Punjab Public
Service Commission (PPSC) Pre Exam, 2012
Topic : Green Revolution in
After 1966, agricultural production, especially production of
foodgrains, increased at a rapid pace. This increase continues till this day.
This consistent increase in agricultural production is called Green Revo/ mime.
1. What is meant by Green Revolution?
Green Revolution implies large increase in agricultural
production, which is the result of new agricultural strategy. Green Revolution
thus refers to (1) Tremendous increase in agricultural production and (2)
of high level of agricultural production over long period.
Changes that took place in agricultural production in
1967-68, were more spectacular and rapid than the changes during the last 16
years of planning. Hence these changes were referred to as Green Revolution. In
short, Green Revolution means that spectacular increase in agricultural
production in the sixth decade, which could be made possible by the use of HY V
seeds and the new technique of chemical fertilizers in the short period. In
1965-66, production of food grains in Punjab was 33.89 lakh tonnes that
increased to 119 lakh tonnes in 1971-72. In this way, within a period of ve
years production of foodgrains increased three times. In the year 2003-04,
production of food grains increased to 247.24 lakh tonnes. Increase in
agricultural production continues uninterrupted in Punjab.
Dear Candidate, This Material is from Punjab PSC Study Kit. For Details
Causes of Green Revolution:
(i) HYV seeds: High yielding varieties of seeds have
played a great role in increasing agricultural production in Punjab. These seeds
were introduced in 1966 for the production of wheat, rice, bajra, make and jowar.
As result of the use of these seeds per hectare production has increased a lot.
For instance, per hectare yield of wheat has increased from 12 quintals to 45
quintals and that of rice from 10 quintals to 35 quintals. Thus use of HYV seeds
has helped in accelerating the pace of Green Revolution. Punjab Agricultural
University has played a signi cant role in this respect.
(ii) Fertilizers: Use of chemical fertilizers
has also increased production of food grains very much. In 1957-68, chemicals
fertilizers were used in Punjab to the extent of 99 thousand tonnes. In 2003-04,
their use increased to 1,543 thousand tonnes. Use of chemical fertilizers has
thus increased by 15 times.
(iii) Irrigation: Increase in the area of irrigation
has also in uenced Green Revolution a great deal. In the year 1965- 66,
irrigation facility was available over an area of 22 lakh hectares. In 2003- 04,
this facility was available to 77 lakh hectares of land. This had a favourable
effect on Green Revolution. Tubewellirrigation has increased very much in
(iv) Multiple cropping: Proper arrangement of
irrigation and use of HYV Seeds have enabled the farmers to grow more than one
crop in a year. For example, after the harvest of wheat in April, moong is
sownin the same eld. It matures within two months and is followed by the
sowing of rice and sugarcane. Due to multiple cropping, production of foodgrain
has risen very much. (v) Agricultural machinery: Use of modem agricultural
machinery has also increased a great deal. For instance, tractors, harvesters,
pumping-sets, tubewells, etc are seen everywhere. Use of HYV seeds and multiple
cropping were facilitated by the progressive use of modern machinery.
Agriculture in Punjab has been mechanized on a largescale, as is evident from
the increasing use of tractors, threshers, combine harvesters and other
(vi) Credit facilities: Farmers have been getting more
credit facilites. Previously, they used to get 80 per cent of their credit needs
met through the moneylenders at a very high rate of interest. But now
agricultural credit institutions at a very low rate of interest meet a major
part of their needs. Cheap credit facilities to the farmers enabled them to buy
more and more of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers, machines etc. They were also
enabled to arrange minor irrigation for their parched lands.
(vii) New techniques: Through Intensive Agriculture District Programme (IADP)
etc farmers have been given training in improved methods of cultivation. Indian
Agriculture Research institute and Punjab Agricultural University have also been
doing intensive research in this respect. Under new agricultural strategy much
attention is being paid to crop rotation, use of HYV seeds, chemical
fertilizers, water etc.
(viii) Research: In the post independence period
research has been conducted in connection with different problems of
agriculture. Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana has made a signi cant
contribution to this eld. The University has not only evolved better quality
seeds in respect to wheat and rice but has also evolved good variety of seeds in
respect of cotton, gram, maize, sugarcane, fodder, oilseeds, fruit and
(ix) Plant protection: In Punjab previously there was hardly any
arrangement to protect the plants against plant diseases. Consequently crops
used to be damaged on a large scale. But now there are adequate
arrangements to protect the plant against diseases and pests. Different types of
medicines are sprayed on the crops. Aerial spraying is also done with the help
of aeroplanes. There is dispensary at Punjab Agricultural University to dispense
medicines against plant diseases.
(x) Marketing facilities: Farmers were compelled to
sell their agricultural produce in unregulated markets in the past where they
got unremunerative prices of their produce. So they could not spend much on the
development of agriculture. But now there is a lot of improvement in the
marketing of agricultural produce. As many as 144 Regulated markets have been
setup in Punjab. Farmers can now store their produce in warehouses and cold
(xi) Price incentives: Bumper harvest may lead to fall in agricultural
prices of different agricultural prices adversely affecting future production.
To avoid this eventuality, every year minimum prices of different agricultural
crops are xed by the Agriculture Cost and Price Commission appointed by the
government. Government itself buys agricultural produce at the minimum price
xed by the commission, through its different agencies, like, Food Corporation of
India, Markfed Punsup etc. These agencies do not allow the prices of foodgrains
to fall below the minimum xed by the Commission.
(xii) Institutional reforms: Several institutional
reforms have been undertaken in Punjab in agricultural sector, consolidation of
holding, abolitition of intermediaries etc. The scattered holdings of the
farmers have been consolidated in one or two large holdings. It becomes easier
for the farmer to arrange for irrigation facilities on this large holding
situated at one place. Intensive cultivation thus becomes possible. Abolition of
Zamindari or intermediaries has provided the actual cultivator with a new
enthusiasm to work hard, as he and he will now enjoy the fruit of his labour
alone. Institutional Reforms have thus gone a long way in rendering Punjab's
agrairan economy progressive.
2. Effects or Achievements of Green Revolution Green
Revolution has in uenced Punjab's economy very much. It has provided a new
dimension to Punjab economy. Its main effects are
(i) Increase in production: As a result of Green
Revolution in the year 1969- 70 and thereafter, production of crops increased
(ii) Capitalistic farming: Financial resources are
needed to take full advantage of Green Revolution. Only those farmers who have
more than 10 hectares of land can spare these resources. There are about 10.27
lakh farms in Punjab, of which 12 per cent farms measure between 5 and 10
hectares and 7.2 per cent farms measure more than 10 hectares. It is the latter
category of farmers who have enjoyed the maximum bene t of the Green
(iii) Prosperity of the farmers: Economic conditions
of the farmers have improved substantially as a result of Green Revolution.
Their standard of living has gone up. Agriculture is now regarded as a pro
table occupation. Demand for consumer goods in Punjab has increased.. Demand for
high quality goods and luxuries have also gone up.
( iv) Development of industries: Green Revolution has
promoted the development of industries in Punjab.Industries producing
agricultural tools and implements have developed appreciably. Big factories
producing tractors, diesel engines, pumping-sets have been installed.
(v) Increase in per hectare productivity: Green
Revolution contributed considerably to the increase in per hectare productivity.
Per hectare productivity of almost all crops namely, wheat, rice, cotton, bajra,
etc has increased many times. It is mainly due to increasing use of better
quality seeds, chemical fertilizers, irrigation, mechanisation of agriculture
etc. Defects of Green Revolution Main defects of Green Revolution are as
(i) Limited crops: Increase in agricultural production
is con ned to a few crops like wheat, rice, bajra, maize, etc. Production
of commercial crops like sugarcane, cotton, oilseeds etc has not increased much.
(ii) Bene t to big farmers: Increase in agricultural
production due to Green Revolution has bene tted only rich and big farmers.
Poor farmers could not take advantage of it. They are not so resourceful as to
buy HYV seeds and fertilizers in black market. Due to scarcity of these inputs,
black marketing in their sales has vitiated agricultural atmosphere. Gap between
rich and poor has further widened. Thus the main objective of Five Year Plans
that is reduction in the inequalities of wealth and income has failed miserably
in the rural areas of Punjab.
(iii) Unfavourable social effects: There are several
unfavourable social effects of Green Revolution. For instance: (1) Joint
family system is disintegrating. (2) Lavish expenditures on the occasion of
marriage and other social functions have adversely affected marginal and medium
farmers (3) Capitalist farming is on the increase. (4) Liquor and drug addiction
are rampant. Small farmers are nding it dif culty to make two ends meet.