Punjab Public Service Commission (PPSC)
Mains Examination Syllabus - Philosophy
PAPER - I
History and Problems of Philosophy:
1. Plato and Aristotle : Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter;
Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian
Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and
3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge;
Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space
and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the
Existence of God.
5. Hegel : Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism.
6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of
Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions;
Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
7. Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning;
Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
8. Later Wittgenstein : Meaning and Use; Language-games;
Critique of Private Language.
9. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences;
Avoidance of Psychologism.
10. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger) :
Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence;
Being-in-the –world and Temporality.
11. Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of
Basic Particulars and Persons.
12. Cârvâka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent
13. Jainism : Theory of Reality; Saptabhaoginaya; Bondage and
14. Schools of Buddhism: Pratityasamutpada; Ksanikavada,
15. Nyâya- Vaiúesika : Theory of Categories; Theory of
Appearance; Theory of Pramâna; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence
of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
16. Sâmkhya : Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation.
17. Yoga : Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
18. Mimamsa : Theory of Knowledge.
19. Schools of Vedanta : Brahman; luvara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat;
Maya; Avidya; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda.
20. Aurobindo : Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.
PAPER – II
Socio-Political Philosophy :
1. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
2. Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
3. Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
4. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
6. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
7. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide,
8. Development and Social Progress.
9. Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property
10. Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar Philosophy of
1. Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World
(Indian and Western).
2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian
3. Problem of Evil.
4. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
5. Reason, Revelation and Faith.
6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and
7. Religion without God.
8. Religion and Morality.
9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
10. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic;
Cognitivist and Non- cognitive.
Courtesy : ppsc.gov.in