(Download) Special Material For Punjab PSC Pre Exam, 2012 [Soils of Punjab]

Punjab Public Service Commission

Special Material For Punjab Public Service Commission (PPSC) Pre Exam, 2012

Topic :  Soils of Punjab

Geographically, the soils of Punjab can be divided into three parts:

1. Soils of Arid and Semi-Arid Regions - These are known as dry soils also. Such soils are found in the southwest regions of the state, which include Tehsils viz. Fazilka, Muktsar, Bhatinda, Mansa and some part of Ferozepur Tehsil near the Rajasthan border. In other words, all southwest regions of Punjab have such soils. These regions are puctuated by sand-drives here and there. Arid and semi-arid soil regions cover about 20% of the total area of the state. Such soils are very deep. The annual average of rainfall in arid soil regions is between 200 to 450 milimetres. The main problems of these soils are:

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(1) Inferior underground water,

(2) Lack of required water supply for irrigation,

(3) Deposited layers of calcium carbonate,

(4) Water logging problem. Arid and semiarid soils can further be divided into three parts:

  • (a) Grey and Red Desert Soils - Such type of soils are found in the regions with an annual average rainfall of 250 to 450 mm and an average  temperature of 25° to 27°C. The regions of this soil include southeast part of Fazilka Tehsil. Talwandi Sabo Tehsil and some part of Tehsil Bhatinda.

  • (b) Calcareous Soils - The composition of such soils abounds in lime. These are found in the regions with an annual average rainfall of 350 to 450 mm. These soils cover North- West part of Fazilka Tehsil and some parts of Muktsar, Faridkot, Bhatinda, Rampura Phul, Barnala, Malerkotla, Sangrur and Mansa Tehsils.

  • (c) Rego Soils - Rego Soils are sandy and stony which exist in the form of sand dunes in dry and hot regions. This category- of soils is very rare in Punjab. Here these are available mainly in the Sardulgarh Tehsil of district Mansa.

2. Soils of Semi-arid and less Hot Regions: These are called L stik soils also. Such soils are found in about 36'.o area of the state, which may be having an average annual rainfall of 450 to 1000 mm. Such soils can be sub-divided into  ve parts:

  • (a) Brown or Reddish Brown Soils - These are available in the regions with an annual average rainfall of 450 to 800 mm. Thus, these soils cover Girpat plains near Shivahk hill and in many parts of Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Kapurthala, Patiala, Sangrur, Ludhiana, Ferozepur, Faridkot, Gurdaspur and Amritsar district.

  • (b) Reddish Chestnut Soils- These are found in the regions with an annual average rainfall of 800 to 1000 mm. These soils cover the Northeast slopes of Punjab and North-West regions. In other words, such soils arc available in Shivalik hills and some parts of Patiala, 1alandhar, (;urdaspur, Ropar and I-loshiarpur districts.

  • (c) Salt-Soils - The soils of slopes have become salty in composition. About seven lac hectares of land in the state have fallen a prey to them. Composition wise these soils have turned alluvial- Domar from sandy Domat. Due to excessive salt content in these soils, the areas covered by them have turned barren. Punjab government is trying to treat these salty soils.

  • (d) Fluvial Soils - These soils have been formed by the rivers i.e.', the soils of ood prone plains. Alluvial soils are generally available in the  ood-prone and Girpad plain areas. Except Kandi regions, these soils arc quite deep in other areas. Alluvial soils,arc very productive. Undulating Hills and peidmont plain Soil - These soils arc found in the Northeast regions and they cover about 9o of the total area of the State. In the foothills and peidmont plains regions, the surface of soils does not remain constant due to 3 to 10 percent of slopes.

3. Soils of Sub-Humid and Less Hot Zone - The soils of sub-humid and less hot zones are spread North-last coast to less moist boundaries of Himachal Pradesh.


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