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# (Syllabus) Punjab PSC (Pre) : Combined State Civil Services Exam - Physics

## Punjab Public Service Commission

SYLLABI FOR THE EXAMINATION PART-B PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION

## PHYSICS : CODE NO. (12)

**Mechanics and Waves : **Dimensional analysis. Newton’s laws of motion
and applications, variable mass systems, projectiles. Rotational
dynamics-kinetic energy, angular momentum, theorems of moment of inertia and
calculations in simple cases. Conservative forces, frictional forces.
Gravitational potential and intensity due to spherical objects. Central forces,
Kepler’s problem, escape velocity and artificial satellites (including GPS).
Streamline motion, viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation. Applications of Bernoulli’s
equation and Stokes’ law. Special relativity and Lorentz transformation-length
contraction, time dilation, massenergy relation. Simple harmonic motion,
lissajous figures. Damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance. Beats,
Phase and group velocities. Stationary waves, vibration of strings and air
columns, longitudinal waves in solids. Doppler effect. Ultrasonics and
applications.

**Geometrical and Physical Optics : **Laws of reflection and refraction
from Fermat’s principle. Matrix method in paraxial optics—thin lens formula,
nodal planes, system of two thin lenses. Chromatic and spherical aberrations.
Simple optical instruments-magnifier, eyepieces, telescopes and microscopes.
Huygens’ principle—reflection and refraction of waves. Interference of
light—Young’s experiment, Newton’s rings, interference by thin films. Michelson
interferometer. Fraunhofer diffraction—single slit, double slit, diffraction
grating, resolving power. Fresnel diffraction—halfperiod zones and zone plate.
Production and detection of linearly, circularly and elliptically polarised
light. Double refraction, quarter—wave plates and half-wave plates. Polarizing
sheets. Optical activity and applications. Raman & Rayleigh scattering and
applications. Elements of fibre optics—attenuation; pulse dispersion in step
index and parabolic index fibres; material dispersion. Lasers, characteristics
of laser light—spatial and temporal coherence. Focussing of laser beams and
applications.

**Heat and Thermodynamics : **Thermal equilibrium and temperature. The
zeroth law of thermodynamics. Heat and the first law of thermodynamics.
Efficiency of Carnot engines. Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics.
Kinetic theory and the equation of state of an ideal gas. Mean free path,
distribution of molecular speeds and energies. Transport phenomena. Andrew’s
experiements— van der Waals equation and applications. Joule—Kelvin effect and
applications. Brownian motion. Thermodynamic potentials—Maxwell relations. Phase
transitions. Kirchhoff’s laws. Black-body radiation—Stefan-Boltzmann law,
spectral radiancy, Wien displacement law, application to the cosmic microwave
background radiation, Planck radiation law.

**Electricity and Magnetism : **Electric charge, Coulomb’s law,
electric field, Gauss’ law. Electric potential, van de Graaff accelerator.
Capacitors, dielectrics and polarization. Ohm’s law, Kirchhoff’s first and
second rules, resistors in series and parallel, applications to two-loop
circuits. Magnetic field— Gauss’law for magnetism, atomic and nuclear magnetism,
magnetic susceptibility, classification of magnetic materials. Circulating
charges, cyclotron, synchrotron. Hall effect. Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s law,
Faraday’s law of induction, Lenz’s law. Inductance. Alternating current
circuits- RC. LR, single-loop LRC circuits, impedance, resonance, power in AC
circuits. displacement current, Maxwell’s equations (MKS units), electromagnetic
waves, energy, transport and poynting vector.

**Atomic and Nuclear Physics : **Photoelectric effect, Einstein’s photon
theory. Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom. Stern- Gerlack experiment, quantisation
of angular momentum, electron spin. Pauli exclusion principle and applications.
Zeeman effect. X-ray spectrum, Bragg’s law, Bohr’s theory of the Mosley plot.
Compton effect, Compton wave length. Wave nature of matter, de Broglie
wavelength, waveparticle duality. Heisenberg’s uncertainty relationships.
Schroedinger’s equation—eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of (i) particle in a box,
(ii) simple harmonic oscillator and (iii) hydrogen atom. Potential step and
barrier penetration. Natural and artificial radioactivity. Binding energy of

nuclei, nuclear fission and fusion. Classification of elementary particles and
their interactions.

**Electronics : **Diodes in half-wave and full-wave rectification,
qualitative ideas of semiconductors, p type and n type semiconductors, junction
diode, Zener diode, transistors, binary numbers, Logic gates and truth tables,
Elements of microprocessors and computers.