Punjab Public Service Commission
SYLLABI FOR THE EXAMINATION
PART-B MAIN EXAM
1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, Behavioural
Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :
(a) Social- cultural Anthropology.
(b) Biological Anthropology.
(c) Archaeological Anthropology.
(d) Linguistic Anthropology.
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man :
(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and
(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts
of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule,
parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution)..
1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy;
Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour;
and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of
Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the
(a) Plio-pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa—Australopithecines.
(b) Homo erectus : Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis),
(Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
(c) Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel
(d) Rhodesian man.
(e) Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
1.7 The biological basis of life : The Cell, DNA structure and replication,
Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology : Relative and
Absolute Dating methods.
(b) Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
(v) Copper-Bronze Age
(vi) Iron Age
2.1 The Nature of Culture :
The concept and characteristics of culture and
Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism.
2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social
groups; and Social stratification.
2.3 Marriage : Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy,
hypogamy, incest taboo); Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group
marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential,
proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
2.4 Family : Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups;
family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation,
residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and
movements on family.
2.5 Kinship : Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal,
Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety
kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent,
Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.
3. Economic organization :
Meaning, scope and relevance of economic
and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and
(reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting
gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture;
indigenous economic systems.
4. Political organization and Social Control :
Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom
and state; concepts
of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple
Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary,
functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals;
religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism,
totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico- religious
(priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
6. Anthropological theories :
(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
(b) Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)
(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural-functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)
(d) Structuralism (L’evi - Strauss and E. Leach)
(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora - du
(f) Neo - evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)
(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
(j) Post- modernism in anthropology
7. Culture, language and communication :
Nature, origin and characteristics of
and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.
8. Research methods in anthropology :
(a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
(b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology
(c) Tools of data collection : observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire,
genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information,
(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
9.1 Human Genetics
Methods and Application : Methods for study of genetic
man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method,
method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological
methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal,
polygenic inheritance in man.
9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population,
causes and changes which bring down frequency–mutation, isolation, migration,
inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating,
genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
(b) Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female
(XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
(c) Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat
(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling,
DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric
characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and
basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker—ABO, Rh blood groups,
transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body
fat, pulse rate,
respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural
Non- genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses:
cold, high altitude climate.
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology : Health and disease. Infectious and
Nutritional deficiency related diseases.
10. Concept of human growth and development :
Stages of growth—pre-natal, natal,
childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical,
cultural and socio-economic. Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations—biological and chronological
Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility.
Fertility patterns and
11.2 Demographic theories—biological, social and cultural.
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility,
12. Applications of Anthropology:
Anthropology of sports, Nutritional
Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic
Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied
genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology
diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
PAPER – II
1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization:
Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic). Protohistoric (Indus Civilization) : Pre-Harappan,
Harappan and post-Harappan cultures. Contributions of tribal cultures to Indian
1.2 Palaeo – anthropological evidences from India with special reference to
Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
1.3 Ethno-archaeology in India : The concept of ethno-archaeology; Survivals and
among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including
crafts producing communities.
2. Demographic profile of India
Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian
their distribution. Indian population—factors influencing its structure and
3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system
Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
3.2 Caste system in India—structure and characteristics, Varna and caste,
Theories of origin of
caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani
3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man—Spirit Complex.
3.4 Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.
4. Emergence and growth of anthropology in India:
Contributions of the 18th, 19th
early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian
anthropologists totribal and caste studies.
5.1 Indian Village :—Significance of village study in India; Indian village as a
Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations;
in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic
5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian
Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great
Panchayati raj and social change; Media and social change.
6.1 Tribal situation in India:
Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and
characteristics of tribal populations and their distribution.
6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities—land alienation, poverty, indebtedness,
poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems
rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanization
industrialization on tribal populations.
7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled
Tribes and Other
Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled
7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies—Impact of modern democratic
development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments;
Unrest among tribal
communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism; Social
among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on
8.2 Tribe and nation state — a comparative study of tribal communities in India
9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans,
programmes of tribal
development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal
their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.Os in
9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism,
ethnic and political movements.