Punjab Public Service Commission
SYLLABI FOR THE EXAMINATION
PART-B MAIN EXAM
1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology:
Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi
and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry,
medicine and in
control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis. Important
crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes;
Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease
resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures; Fungal
toxins; Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.
Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes—structure and reproduction from
evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological
and economic importance.
Gymnosperms:—Concept of Progymnosperms ; Classification and distribution of
gymnosperms; Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales,
structure and reproduction; General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales
Cordaitales; Geological time scale; Type of fossils and their study techniques.
Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.
Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical
taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.
Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of
classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families—Mangnoliaceae,
Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae,
Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae,
Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and
Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual
growth; Anatomy of C3
plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood
Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization;
its development and function; Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony and
apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen
storage and test-tube fertilization.
4. Plant Resource Development:
Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants; Vavilov’s
origin; Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibre, spices, beverages, edible
narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes, latex, cellulose, starch
products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy
Botanical Gardens and Herbaria. 5. Morphogenesis:
Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and dfferentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and
culture; Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and
applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.
PAPER – II
1. Cell Biology:
Techniques of cell biology; Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells—structural and
ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell
membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport; Structure
function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes
endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes); Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus,
nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and
receptors; Signal transduction; Mitosis and meiosis; Molecular basis of cell
Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance;
organization and packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes—
structure, behaviour and significance.
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution:
Development of genetics; Gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles);
genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance,
alleles; Linkage and crossing over; Methods of gene mapping, including molecular
(idea of mapping function); Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance, sex
determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical
molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and
regulation of gene
expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution—evidences,
mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and evolution.
3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics:
Methods of plant breeding – introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree,
backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility
heterosis breeding; Use of apomixes in plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic
engineering—methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety
Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and
probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH.
Standard deviation and co-efficient of variation (CV); Tests of significance
and chi-square test); Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and
Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and Biochemistry:
Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies;
Photosynthesis photochemical reactions; photophosphorylation and carbon fixation pathways;
and CAM pathways; Mechanism of phloem transport; Respiration (anerobic and
including fermentation) – electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation;
Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism;
fixation and nitrogen metabolism; Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy
conservation; Importance of secondary metabolites; Pigments as photoreceptors
(plastidial pigments and phytochrome); Plant movements; Photoperiodism and
flowering, vernalization, senescence; Growth substances—their chemical nature,
applications in agri-horticulture; Growth indices, growth movements; Stress
(heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology; Dormancy, storage and
germination of seed; Fruit ripening – its molecular basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant Geography:
Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors; Concepts and dynamics of community;
succession; Concept of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its
(including phytoremediation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.
Forest types of India—Ecological and economic importance of forests,
deforestation and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism, IUCN categories,
Data Books; Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network;
Biological Diversity; Farmers’ Rights and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept
Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles; Global warming and climatic
Invasive species; Environmental Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of