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# (Syllabus) Punjab PSC (Main) : Combined State Civil Services Exam - Physics

## Punjab Public Service Commission

**
SYLLABI FOR THE EXAMINATION
PART B MAIN EXAM**

## PHYSICS

## PART-I

**1. (a) Mechanics of Particles:**Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating
frames, centripetal and Coriolis accelerations; Motion under a central force;
Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler’s laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field and
potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational self-energy;
Twobody problem; Reduced mass; Rutherford scattering; Centre of mass and
laboratory reference frames.

**(b) Mechanics of Rigid Bodies:**

System of particles; Centre of mass, angular momentum, equations of motion; Conservation theorems for energy, momentum and angular momentum; Elastic and inelastic collisions; Rigid body; Degrees of freedom, Euler’s theorem, angular velocity, angular momentum, moments of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes, equation of motion for rotation; Molecular rotations (as rigid bodies); Di and tri-atomic molecules; Precessional motion; top, gyroscope.

**(c) Mechanics of Continuous Media:**Elasticity, Hooke’s law and elastic constants of isotropic solids and their inter-relation; Streamline (Laminar) flow, viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation, Bernoulli’s equation, Stokes’ law and applications.

**(d) Special Relativity:**Michelson-Morley experiment and its implications; Lorentz transformations—length contraction, time dilation, addition of relativistic velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, mass-energy relation, simple applications to a decay process; Four dimensional momentum vector; Covariance of equations of physics.

**2. Waves and Optics:**

(a) Waves:Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance; Beats; Stationary waves in a string; Pulses and wave packets; Phase and group velocities; Reflection and Refraction from Huygens’ principle.

(a) Waves:

**(b) Geometrical Optics:**Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat’s principle; Matrix method in paraxial optics—thin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic and spherical aberrations.

**(c) Interference: Interference of light-**Young’s experiment, Newton’s rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer; Multiple beam interference and Fabry-Perot interferometer.

**(d) Diffraction: Fraunhofer diffraction**—single slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power; Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern; Fresnel diffraction: half-period zones and zone plates, circular aperture.

**(e) Polarization and Modern Optics:**

Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarized light; Double refraction, quarter wave plate; Optical activity; Principles of fibre optics, attenuation; Pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres; Material dispersion, single mode fibres; Lasers—Einstein A and B coefficients; Ruby and He-Ne lasers; Characteristics of laser light-spatial and temporal coherence; Focusing of laser beams; Three-level scheme for laser operation; Holography and simple applications.

**3. Electricity and Magnetism:**

(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics:

(a) Electrostatics and Magnetostatics:

Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications; Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of scalar potential; Method of images and its applications; Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an external field; Dielectrics, polarization; Solutions to boundary-value problems—conducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field; Magnetic shell, uniformly magnetized sphere; Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.

**(b) Current Electricity:**

Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications; Biot-Savart law, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law, Lenz’ law; Self-and mutual-inductances; Mean and r m s values in AC circuits; DC and AC circuits with R, L and C components; Series and parallel resonances; Quality factor; Principle of transformer.

**(c) Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation:**

Displacement current and Maxwell’s equations; Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem; Vector and scalar potentials; Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwell’s equations; Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics; Fresnel’s relations; Total internal reflection; Normal and anomalous dispersion; Rayleigh scattering; Blackbody radiation and Planck’s radiation law, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law and Rayleigh-Jeans’ law.

**4. Thermal and Statistical Physics:**

**(a) Thermodynamics:**Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy; Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy changes; Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs’ phase rule and chemical potential; van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants; Maxwell-Boltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems; Dulong-Petit, Einstein, and Debye’s theories of specific heat of solids; Maxwell relations and applications; Clausius—Clapeyron equation; Adiabatic demagnetisation, Joule-Kelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.

**(b) Statistical Physics:**Macro and micro states, statistical distributions, Maxwell-Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac distributions, applications to specific heat of gases and blackbody radiation; Concept of negative temperatures.

## PAPER - II

**1. Quantum Mechanics:**

Wave-particle dualitiy; Schroedinger equation and expectation values;
Uncertainty principle; Solutions of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a free
particle (Gaussian wave-packet), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear
harmonic oscillator; Reflection and transmission by a step potential and by a rectangular
barrier; Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of
metals; Angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Spin half particles, properties of Pauli spin
matrices.**2. Atomic and Molecular Physics: **Stern-Gerlach experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom; L-S
coupling, J-J coupling; Spectroscopic notation of atomic states; Zeeman effect;
Frank-Condon principle and applications; Elementary theory of rotational, vibratonal and
electronic spectra of diatomic molecules; Raman effect and molecular structure; Laser Raman
spectroscopy; Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and
molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Elementary theory
and applications of NMR and EPR; Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its
significance.**3. Nuclear and Particle Physics:** Basic nuclear properties-size, binding energy, angular momentum, parity,
magnetic moment; Semi-empirical mass formula and applications, mass parabolas; Ground
state of deuteron, magnetic moment and non-central forces; Meson theory of nuclear
forces; Salient features of nuclear forces; Shell model of the nucleus - successes and
limitations; Violation of parity in beta decay; Gamma decay and internal conversion;
Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy; Q-value of nuclear reactions; Nuclear
fission and fusion, energy production in stars; Nuclear reactors.

Classification of elementary particles and their interactions; Conservation
laws; Quark structure of hadrons; Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions;
Elementary ideas about unification of forces; Physics of neutrinos.**4. Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics: **Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, space
groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; X-ray diffraction, scanning and
transmission electron microscopies; Band theory of solids - conductors,
insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory;
Magnetism: dia, para and ferromagnetism; Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect,
Josephson junctions and applications; Elementary ideas about high temperature
superconductivity.

Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; p-n-p and n-p-n transistors; Amplifiers
and oscillators; Op-amps; FET, JFET and MOSFET; Digital electronics-Boolean
identities, De Morgan’s laws, logic gates and truth tables; Simple logic circuits;
Thermistors, solar cells; Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.