The Gist of Yojana: January + February 2013
- Higher education at the National Level
- Component of Infrastructure
- Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
- Khasi Sacred Forests
- Apatani Composite Farming
- Nitrogen Fixing Techniques of the Angamis
- Recommendation of the High Level Committee
- National Policy on Electronics and R&D and Innovation
- Approach of XII Plan
- The Yozmna Programme in Israel
- Perfromance of Farmers
- Areas of Concern
- Technical Training and Schemes For Kashmiri Youth
- Entrepreneurship Development in India
- Developing Entrepreneurship in North East
- Entrepreneurship Development in Nagaland
- Do You Know What’s FDI?
- Some Key Recommendations of 13th Finance Comission
- Mechanical Innovations for Commercial Applications
- Nagaland-A Land of Festivals
- North Eastern Rural Livelihood Project
Higher education at the National Level
The country presently (201112) possesses 634 universities
and 33,023 colleges with the student strength of 1,69,75,000 (girls 70,49,000).
The number of graduates coming out of technical colleges was slightly over
7,00,000 in the last year. However, 75 percent of technical graduates and more
than 85 percent of general graduates are unemployable by India’s high growth
global industries, including information technology. In the North-East states 40
universities and such institutions are present with Nagaland having 3, Assam 10,
Meghalaya 9, Sikkim 5, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Tripura each
having 3. The small number of institutions in these states can be due to the
small size of the states.
In the country out of the GDP, 3.77 percent was spent on education in 2011,
32.3 percent of the total amount went to higher education.
Despite growing investment in education, 25 percent
population still remains to be illiterate; 15 percent of Indian students reach
high school and just 7 percent college and university. The quality of higher
education is significantly poor. India’s post-secondary institutions offer only
enough seats for 7 percent of India’s college-age population.
Component of Infrastructure
Infrastructure Development is a fundamental prerequisite for
realizing the vision of progress towards peace and prosperity and for creating
an investment climate and market development in the North East. In fact, this is
a basic prerequisite for development and has strong complementarities with
measures to improve health and education as well as industry and services are
crucial for establishing a stable and peaceful society and hence for the
progress and prosperity of the entire region.
Transport is a vital input for the proposed shift from
subsistence agriculture to cash crop based farming, as well as the planned
development of industry and the service sector. Most of the area in the region
is hilly and undulating with low population densities, accompanied by low per
area production of goods. In the hilly terrain, what it is in the NER (except in
Assam and some parts of other states) development of inland waterways is the
most expensive. Similarly, rail connectivity in such a terrain is not only time
consuming but would need prohibitive investments, probably beyond the means of
the nation. It is road connectivity which would play a dominant role in
fulfilling the transportation needs of the public. Air connectivity would
certainly play a role for a limited segment of people and goods.
The main grid of transportation of goods and passengers in
the North East is the road network of 82,000 Kms. This network is most developed
in the Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The five other main States in the region
have networks ranging from 5000 to 9000 Kms. The vast majority of roads, around
are unpaved roads, which are generally unsuitable for transport of heavy goods.
The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) has been
paying attention to the development of National Highways (NHs) in the
North-Eastern region and 10 percent of the total allocation is earmarked for
this region. The total length of NHs in the NE, including Sikkim, is 6880 Kms
and these are being developed and maintained by three agencies-the State Public
Works Department (PWD), Border Roads Organisation (BRO) and National Highways
Authority of India (NHAI).
Special Accelerated Road Development Programme for the North
Eastern Region (SARDPNE) is a flagship programme implemented by the Mof Road
Transport and Highways (MoRTH) covering the improvement/ construction of 8737
kms road. Phase-A covering 2304 km had approved for implementation and Phase-B
the length to be covered is 4570 Kms. The objectives of the programme are as
- Connectivity of all State Capital towns with NH through at least 2 lane
- To provide 2-lane connectivity to the remaining 51 District Headquarter
towns of NER (there are in all 85 District Headquarter towns of NER, 23 are
already connected by 2-lane road and connectivity to l l District HQ is
provided under Phase-A of SARDPNE).
- To provide inter-connectivity of all the State Capital towns by at least
- To improve certain roads of strategic importance
- To provide improved connectivity to remote and backward areas, and
- To improve road connectivity to border areas, Land Custom Stations and
The Asian Highways project covering a road network of about
65,000 km. and passing through 15 countries is lying dormant for more than 40
years. The objective of this project is to promote and coordinate development of
international road transport for connecting all the capital and industrial
cities, sea routes and places of tourist and commercial interests in the Asian
region. The proposed roads in the Asian Highways project would connect the NER
not only with Bangladesh but also with other East Asian countries. This will
give a big boost to the development of this region. This project, therefore,
needs to be pushed through for implementation.
The railroad network is limited to 2500 Kms and lies almost
entirely within the State of Assam (2466 Kms), with short stretches in Nagaland
(13 Kms) and Arunachal Pradesh (I Kms). Only 960 Kms of this network consists of
standard gauge track suitable for haulage of bulk goods and the majority of the
network is made up of narrow gauge track suitable for small trains and
transportation of passenger and transportation of smaller cargo.
Similarly, there is an urgent need for a rail link to
Meghalaya and Sikkim. The more important issue from the long-term point of view
of the strategic planning is to develop a rail network with the aim of
increasing inter-state connectivity. In addition, rail connectivity should be
integrated with developments in the other avenues of transport being proposed
for the NER as a whole.
The terrain of the region and very tenuous land link with the
rest of the country makes air connectivity a sine qua non for trade and
commerce, tourism, realization of the potential for horticulture and
floriculture in the region, promotion of higher and technical education and even
for reducing the image deficit that the region suffers from.
The air connectivity was extremely unreliable prior to 2002
as the limited traffic made the use of Boeing jets uneconomical and led to
irregular flight schedules. However, since 2002 the introduction of smaller ATR
planes has made flights within NER somewhat more reliable though Kolkata still
seems to be the hub rather than Guwahati. To make Air connectivity within region
and with India there is a need for substantial investments and participation
from both the Government and private investors.
During 11th Plan, three Greenfield airports, one each at
Packyong in Sikkim, Itanagar in Arunachal Pradesh, and Chiethu in Nagaland was
proposed. In addition, some existing airports in NER also has taken up for
expansion/modification, to make them operational for scheduled flights.
One of the key development constraints for the Northeast over
the past decades has been its geographical isolation. Certainly the advances in
air flight have brought markets closer to the North East, but the relatively
high proportion of bulky goods in the region’s economy requires the further
development of a means of transport. Specifically, the use of inland waterways
as the main network for transportation of bulk goods in the Northeastern Region
has a number of advantages.
The main network of 1800 Kms of navigable waterways of the
Brahmaputra and Barak system has been designated National Waterways (NW)-2 which
is currently used for the transport of bulk goods, but expansion of the
transportation sector is limited by the lack of transport and overhaul
facilities and natural restrictions in the river system due to sedimentation and
shallow water levels.
A number of infrastructure developments have been proposed to
expand the inland waterway network linked to NW-2 and improve port facilities.
Such initiatives would enable the further development of several cargo routes
and ferry service routes along NW-2.
There is also a range of other waterways besides NW-2 that
could be developed and contribute to the economic growth of the Northeast and
promote Indo-Myanmar crossborder trade.
The third major option for increased inland water transport
is the further development of the international Indo-Bangladesh Protocol route
for water transport. The development of this route would increase options for
goods movement to and from the Northeast and peninsular India through the
Sundarbans and Bangladesh, improving the accessibility of the Northeastern
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
The teledensity of the North East is low in comparison to the
rest of India except Mizoram. In addition to that the Internet usage is also low
in the North East is clear from the insignificant number of connections in NER,
being a low 15,303 in 2002, just 0.48 per cent of the total number in the
country. This increased since 2003 but was still less than 1 per cent (0.88 per
cent) of the total. It is thus reasonable to conclude that the NER states have
not been impacted by the telecommunication revolution as much as the rest of the
country. The low Internet penetration is particularly worrying given the
long-term plan of rapidly increasing the spread of IT services in the region.
Cellular mobile services were introduced in the region only
in 2003 after a delay of eight years than the rest of the country for security
reasons. There are still some restrictions in border areas and no signals are
allowed within 500 metres of the international border. This restriction is
particularly harsh to the North East states where a significant population lives
in border areas and, therefore, should be removed as early as possible. To
address the situation, BSNL declared the year 2007 as the “Year of Development
of Telecom Network in NE Region”.
In addition, major initiatives have been taken to boost the
ICT activities in the region by the DoT are: (i) introduction of IMScompliant
functions into the existing solution, (ii) Testing is in progress for the
implementation of IMS-SSF functionality, (iii) Development work for
implementation of IMS Gateway control functions, (iv) BBWT system has been
installed at Agartala, Tripura for Proof-ofconcept and is being evaluated for
implementation of SWAN (StateWide Area Network) and (v) it is also planned to
explore northeastern states for piloting some of the new technologies
There is a huge potential for the power generation in the
region. Apart from this almost every North Eastern state is a deficit in power.
This power deficit is a major constraint in the economic development of the
region which is important for the growing state of industrial and other economic
activities based on power in the region. The power generation opportunities
especially in the hydro power are there in the states especially Arunachal
Pradesh, Sikkim and Meghalaya.
As noted in the Pasighat Declaration, the total power
potential in NER is about 50,000 MW. According to NEC Vision 2020 the estimated
hydro-power potential of Arunachal is around 50,000 MW. The state is expected to
generate an additional 22,584 MW hydel power by 2020 in 166 hydel projects, of
which only 88 MW is to be created under state projects, the rest will be under
central and private projects.
Many policies like the “50,000MW hydro initiative”, Hydro
policy 2008 have been formulated by Central Government to promote investment in
hydropower in the north-eastern region. Under the Mega Power Policy of the
Central Government, the qualifying threshold capacity for setting up hydro power
plants in the region and for availing the special benefits thereof is 350 MW,
whereas for the rest of the country, it is 500 MW.
As per the ‘North Eastern Industrial and Investment Promotion
Policy (NEIIPP) - 2007’ by Ministry of Commerce and industry, the whole of NER
has been declared as SEZ and many subsidies, tax exemptions/ waivers are offered
on cost of infrastructure, transport, power etc.
Khasi Sacred Forests
Arguably, one of the best examples of ancient wisdom in
ensuring ecological sustainability is the Khasi tradition of sacred forests.
Like many tribes in different parts of the world, including central India,
forests, rivers and trees were considered to be the home of gods and spirits.
Hence these were revered, worshipped and protected. Such forests were venerated,
protected and preserved. Under the belief system, it was considered taboo to
pick up even a leaf and carry it out of the forest. It was believed that
disobedience of this led to punishments in the form of ailments, which unless
atoned for, through prescribed rituals, could prove fatal. The forests spirits
were also appeased through rituals and sacrifices and in turn the spirits
ensured the welfare of the people. Such beliefs, in the industrial age, were
often dubbed as animism and superstition and under the relentless onslaught of
modernism, such belief systems are fast disappearing.
With them are disappearing a way of life that was
instrumental in preserving the sustainability of human civilization. As a case
in point may be cited the example of the sacred forests in Meghalaya. In the not
too distant past, many forests of the state were designated as sacred. In fact
even the name Shillong is derived from the hill U Lum Shyllong, where the
present day Shillong Peak is located. It was a sacred forest, where resided the
spirit of the guardian deity, U Lei Shyllong. The Laitkor forest Range which
housed the sacred forests, are today accepted as an important rain catchment
area that feeds the perennial springs that supplies crystal clear water to a
large part of Shillong round the year. Today, with the denudation of this
forests, mountain springs are drying up and water scarcity has become much more
Apatani Composite Farming
The Apatanis are one of the major tribes of Arunachal Pradesh. Predominantly
occupying the Lower Subansiri district, the tribe is renowned for its skills in
Their terraced wet rice fields are also used to grow fish
while the elevated borders or bunds, that retain water in the fields are used
for growing finger millets. The millet plants not only bind and hold the soil
but reduces weed growth. Moreover, the millet produced is highly prized for its
use in manufacturing the local brew. Normally fish fingerlings are released in
the paddy fields and subsequently, the fish feed on the plankton and other micro
flora and insects. As they forage for food, they release micro-nutrients from
the soil that is beneficial for the paddy. The fish grow along with the paddy
crop and sometimes the fish is harvested as much as two times during the year.
In addition, the Apatanis have perfected the art of nutrient
management of the rice terraces in a number of ingenious ways. Compost is
derived through decomposition of paddy straw by inundating fields. A number of
essential mineral supplements are added to the fields through ash derived from
burning of straw and other vegetation that remain in the fields and outlying
In addition, additional manure is derived from animal
droppings, rice husks and kitchen waste. It was also observed that it was common
practice for Apatani villages which are normally located at high elevations, to
direct the organic sewage generated in the villages, to the outlying fields.
This was a good source of organic manure, useful for both the plants as well as
Nitrogen Fixing Techniques of the Angamis
The Angamis are one of the major tribes of Nagaland and the
village of Khonoma, near the capital Kohima, is considered to be one of the
oldest inhabited village in the region. In and around the hills of Khonoma can
be found trees that are hundreds of years old. Many of these are Alder trees, a
species extolled by agricultural scientists for its nitrogen fixing capacity.
The ancient tradition of the Angamis seems to have realized the value of the
Alder in agriculture and hence its preservation over the centuries. In fact,
they seem to have developed an alder based system of shifting cultivation or
Jhum, that gave spectacular productivity. Under this system, while the secondary
foliage or the undergrowth is cleared and burnt to clear the ground for
cultivation, the primary vegetation the Alder trees are left undisturbed.
Recommendation of the High Level Committee
A High Level Committee comprising of Dr. V Krishnamurthy,
Chairman, National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC), Dr. Sam Pitroda,
Adviser to the Prime Minister for Public Infrastructure, Information and
Innovation, among others had submitted a report to the Prime Minister in 2010,
to fast-track the growth of the Electronics System Design and Manufacturing (ESDM)
sector. The Committee made five key recommendations in their report. One of the
five recommendations specifically related to promotion of R&D and innovation in
the sector. The relevant extract of the report is as follows.
“There is an urgent need for intervention to promote and
develop innovation, R&D, Indian IPR and manufacturing within the country for
electronic products, which include telecom products, especially those having
security implications. It is proposed to create a dedicated `Electronic
Development Fund’ with an initial corpus of Rs. 5,000 crore for Innovations,
R&D, TPR and product development and promotion of electronics equipment
manufacturing. This fund would also support seed, angel and venture funding. The
fund may be leveraged to acquire foreign companies so as to shift the production
of products currently imported in large volumes, into the country. Some of the
PSUs which are well positioned may take a lead role and venture into such
acquisitions. The fund would be managed professionally and accessible to both
Government and private sector.” “To take up a major programme for design and
fabrication of an Indian Microprocessor. This would have multiple benefits such
as (i) elimination/reduction of licence fee/royalty paid by the country for
using foreign microprocessor core (ii) develop systems for critical installation
with enhanced security. While the development of microprocessor is likely to
cost around Rs. 1000 crores, the detailed costing for the complete ecosystem
needs to be worked out, which is expected to be around Rs.5000 crores.”
National Policy on Electronics and R&D and Innovation
The draft National Policy on Electronics 2011 was released
recently. It reflects the Government emphasis on development of R&D and
innovation capabilities in this sector. The goals and targets of the Policy
underline this thrust. The relevant goals are extracted below.
To become a global leader in creating Intellectual Property (IP) in the ESDM
sector by increasing fund flow for R&D, seed capital and venture capital for
start-ups in the ESDM and nanoelectronics sectors.
Furthermore, creating an Electronic Development Fund (EDF) to
promote Innovation and IP and R&D, commercialization of products, etc. to
facilitate IP development by Indian industry, academic and R&D institutions is
recognized as a key strategy for achieving the aforesaid goal. The Policy also
envisages that the EDF will be a “Fund of Funds” which will participate in
“Daughter Funds” for various innovation and manufacturing stages. It also states
that all Daughter Funds are to be professionally managed.
Approach of XII Plan
The draft approach to the Twelth Plan points out that the R&D
expenditure in the country is only about 0.9 percent of GDP, of which about
three- fourth is in the public sector and only one fourth is in the private
sector which is simply not adequate. The total expenditure in R&D is required to
be increased to 2 percent of GDP by the end of the Twelfth Plan. This could
consist of about 1 percent in the public sector and 1 percent in the corporate
sector, including PSUs. It recognizes that the current practices and policies
for promoting R&D and innovation do not promote this objective sufficiently. It
states, “we also need to migrate from defensive decision syndrome to trust based
decision logic and from risk averse to risk prepared social behaviour”.
It is necessary to create a framework that takes into account
the entire life cycle of ideas beginning with discovery/ creation to
commercialization, extension and value addition. It is success in this area
alone that can stimulate appropriate innovation across the wider system.
Significant changes will have to be brought in current interaction of publicly
owned S&T establishment with industry, both in public and private sector. This
should result in a significant enhancement of the private sector R&D
expenditure, which is presently estimated at around 25 percent of national R&D
expenditure to at least 50 percent in the Twelfth Plan.
The important elements which may play the catalytic role in
achieving this outcome are: first, leveraging the Government grants and other
forms of financing, to secure private financial flows and support around a
demand driven R&D development path. Industry, both public and private, would
also need to be incentivized to invest at least 2 percent of their sales
turnover in R&D. The second is developing a workable protocol for facilitating
interaction amongst these players. This would cover a range of issues, from the
nature of testing to that of the regulatory framework and the facilitation of
foreign direct investment (FDI) in related R&D activity.
The Yozmna Programme in Israel
- There are important lessons which the proposed Electronic Development
Fund can derive from the Yojana programme of Israel.
- Yozmna created a solid base for a competitive Venture Capital (VC)
industry with critical mass in Israel.
- Yozmna created a solid base for a competitive Venture Capital (VC)
industry with critical mass in Israel.
- It is also created a network which enabled entrepreneurs in Israel to
learn from foreign limited partners; and to acquire a network of
- Yozma was started as a $ l00M Government owned Venture Capital fund
(with the same name) oriented to two functions: a) fund of funds- investment
in 10 private VC funds (‘Yozma Funds’ - 80M); and b) direct investments in
high tech companies-$20M (through the Government -owned ‘Yozma Venture
Perfromance of Farmers
The share of oil seeds crops in terms of area [1.8
percent] and production [0.6 percent] in the total in 1961-62 went up to
16.7 percent and 6.6 percent respectively in the total in 2010-11.
While share of area under commercial crops in the total
increased significantly from 5.1 percent in 1961-62 to 7.5 percent in 2010-11,
their share of production, however, remained stagnant at 39.1 percent and 38.1
Area under all crops in rabi season sharply shot up from
3,350 hectares in 1961-62 to 67,440 hectares [2013 percent] and production from
2,580 metric tons to 1, 14,950 metric tons[4455 percent] in 2010-11.
Consequently yield of crops also improved from 770 kg/ha to 1,704 kg/ha [221
Cereals which did not find place during the rabi season till
1970s covered 2,700 hectares in 1980-81 and increased to 6,500 hectares [240.7
percent] in 2000-01 and 10,330 hectares [382.6 percent] in 2010-11. The cereal
production improved significantly from 4,000 metric tons to 12,200 metric tons
[305 percent] and 19,480 metric tons [487 percent] respectively. The yield of
rabi cereals increased from 1,481 kg/ha to 1,876 kg/ha and 1,885 kg/ha
In 2009, out of the total geographical area of 16,57,900
hectares, the gross area under total agriculture was 3,87,860 [23.39 percent].
Between 2003 and 2009, share of average area under jhum
paddy, pulses & oil seeds, and other cereals in the total declined,from the
level in 2003 whereas share of average area under maize and commercial crops
Between 2003 and 2009, average area as compared to the level
in 2003 under Jhum and TRC paddy marginally improved to 104.58 percent and
104.22 percent respectively, followed by significant rise in average area under
pulses & oil seeds [108.14 percent], total agriculture [110.23 percent] and
maize [124.93 percent] and phenomenally under commercial crops [200.40 percent]
but it significantly declined to 82.23 percent under other cereals. Area under
jhum paddy and TRC paddy rose to meet with the demand of the population increase
[from 18,06,844 in 2002 to 24,34,897 in 2010]. Area under maize significantly
increased in view of farmers’ response to produce maize on a commercial scale
because of its high demand in the market.
Commercial crops demonstrated shift in terms of their share
[7.86 percent] in the total area as well as increase in percentage [200.40
percent] between the level in 2003 and average of seven years.
Between 2003 and 2009 while the yield of Jhum paddy per
hectare increased from 1450 kg to 1930 kg [ 133.10 percent] yield of TRC paddy
increased from 1810 kg to 2340 kg [ 129.28 percent]. The increase is attributed
to selection of higher yielding variety from among the land races available
within the village by discarding low yielding ones and better management
Government’s efforts in 200506 under the programme “Year of
the Farmers” significantly boosted area under all categories of crops except TRC
paddy during the said year.
The cropping pattern has been gradually witnessing a shift
from mono -cropping to mixed and multiple cropping.
Average area, production and yield of Jhum paddy during
2003-09 increased to 104.58 percent, 119.27 percent and 113.72 percent from the
level in 2003 whereas projected Jhumia population increased to 116.66 percent.
Despite area held per person declined to 87.5 percent milled rice per person
marginally rose to 102.03 percent.
The area and production per hectare under terrace rice
cultivation (TRC) is increasing across the State. Perhaps because of the
increase in TRC, the shortfall of rice from jhum is somewhat mitigated.
Innovative uses of TRC, such as cultivating winter crops of cabbage, tomato and
potato cultivation and incorporating fishes and snails as supplementary
activities are generating income for the farming families.
Areas of Concern
Water: Agriculture is mainly dependent on rainfall. However,
because of hilly terrain there is severe surface runoff leading to [i] low rate
of water absorption into the soil and [ii] heavy loss of plant nutrients that
are essentially required for crop-growth. This phenomenon impacts adversely on
crop productivity. During premonsoon and monsoon period more than 80 percent of
the total rainfall is received. Most of this water, however, flows quickly and
drains out into the streams as surface runoff. Small quantity of rainfall gets
stored in few farm ponds constructed on the hill terraces but high seepage rate
does not allow the ponds to hold the water for longer period. Scanty rains are
received during post monsoon and winter season which is also the season for
cultivating rabi crops. During rabi season crops are not irrigated because of
inadequate storage structures for storing the rain water being received during
rainy season. The Department of Irrigation and Flood Control has been
implementing program to create irrigation potential which, however, is not
adequately utilized due to lack of leveled land and farmers’ pursuing
mono-cropping pattern. Erratic and heavy rains often lead to landslide and
damage irrigation structures/infrastructure which are not restored on time due
to lack of sufficient funds. Soil Degradation: According to the National Bureau
of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning , 60 percent of the total geographical
area of the state was affected by different types of land degradation. Soil
erosion was the serious and major problem which is followed by soil acidity and
nutrients loss. Heavy rainfall causes soil erosion which in turn makes
productive soil acidic affecting the quality of the soil. This also leads to
reduced availability of Phosphorus to the plants that inhibits the growth of
rice plant. Soils in Tuensang and Kohima districts are normally low in potash
levels adversely affecting quality of grains. Soils of the state based on
internal drainage are classified into excessively drained and somewhat
According to the Department of Soil and water conservation,
huge acreages are affected by both these types of problems. Based on nature of
soil erosion significant acreages experience soil erosion ranging from
moderately steep to severe.
Jhum cultivation: Above 52 percent of land is under Jhum
cultivation and this traditional practice accounts for 70 percent of soil loss,
degradation of land and deterioration of water resources. According to the ICAR
in absence of effective soil conservation measures the soil loss under jhum
cultivation area was estimated between 40 tons and 90 tons per hectares in 2008.
Besides, other adverse effects of Jhum cultivation include, inter alia, [i]
polluting the air [ii] problem in phosphorus fixation in the soil [iii]
reduction in water table and soil moisture [iv] increased floods in the foot
hills [v] increased sedimentation load in rivers
Low productivity: Factors responsible for low productivity
include, inter alia, [i] incidence of natural calamities and degradation of
prime agricultural land. The natural calamities include landslides, higher
incidence of floods near river belts, high wind velocity and recurrent droughts.
[ii] grossly inadequate institutional infrastructure to provide support services
to facilitate a large number of small farmers to adopt scientific methods of
cultivation, post-harvest management, marketing services and transport.
Strategy: The State has the potential for transforming
traditional agriculture to commercial agriculture, making Nagaland a leading
State in sustainable rainfed farming and promoting organic agriculture. In this
context, the Government seeks to promote technically sound, economically viable,
environmentally nondegrading, socially acceptable and sustainable development
of agriculture in the state through optimum utilization of resources, such as
the land, water and genetic endowment, among others. In the process, focus of
agricultural growth is value addition, promoting agri-business, creating more
employment opportunity in rural areas that can reduce migration to urban centres.
Field studies and interaction with the farmers necessitate following strategic
actions to accomplish the goals envisioned in the Vision 2020 document.
TECHNICAL TRAINING AND. SCHEMES FOR KASHMIRI YOUTH
A projected honey output of over 500 tonnes, 7,500 beekeepers
and growing, with 29,850 bee colonies A between them. Beekeeping has been
catching on in Jammu and Kashmir, with production having Limped from 300 tonnes
in 2010 to 597 last year. It’s a trend that also creates job avenues for the
unemployed, say officials, pointing out that many educated youths are among
those setting up bee colonies in the countryside because of its promise. Honey
has not only a local market but also demanded nationally and internationally. In
the last six years, 1,067 tonnes was exported out of the valley.
Beekeeping had once fallen into decline. “In 1988, a local
bee became the victim of a disease, which caused the death of all colonies
throughout Kashmir. It contributed to the decline of the beekeeping culture in
the valley, and thousands left this business,” said Farooq Ahmed Shah, who has
been rearing bees for five decades. Shah, who never gave up, has 100 bee
colonies and earns about Rs 2,60,000 with a season’s produce. An Italian bee
resistant to that disease was introduced but Shah says the local bee coped
better with the conditions.
What attracted fresh beekeepers, mostly the young, was the
introduction of subsidies, schemes and technical training. “We provide beehives
and bee colonies on a 50 percent subsidy,” said G M Rather, chief agriculture
officer. “There are various schemes and the subsidy is given on hives,
medicines, honey extracting equipment, besides free knowhow.” The state’s
apiculture department keeps 100 bee colonies for demonstration to beneficiaries,
besides holding disease awareness programmes. “The bee colonies are for the
people who come here; we train them in beekeeping. Last year we produced one
quintal of honey within the department,” said Imtiyaz Ahmed, a beekeeper in the
Entrepreneurship Development in India
In India, Small Industry Extension Training Institute
(popularly known as SIET Institute, Hyderabad), had first introduced the efforts
for developing entrepreneurship in the country in the year 1962 in collaboration
with Harvard University. Dr. David Maclleland, Professor of Harvard University
who developed his Trait Model concept in 1961 was invited to India to experiment
and apply the concept in India. He along with SIFT Institute went on to first
apply the concept through training and research in a remote place called
Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh and later in Tamil Nadu (Prof. D. Nagayya,
Entrepreneurship Development in North East, Edited by Dr. D.D. Mali, 2000).
Since 1962 to till now, many Institutions in India have adopted the concept with
or without modifications from time to time. The well known and experienced
Institutions like MSME-NI (Hyderabad formerly known as SIFT Institute/NISIET),
EDI (Ahmedabad), NIESBUD, New Delhi (both the organizations were started in
1983), IIE (Guwahati1994) etc have also been applying some new approaches on
trial and error basis.
The post liberalisation industrial and economic scenario in
India makes it imperative that a more dynamic and pragmatic approach be adopted
to create first generation entrepreneurs on a large scale in the various parts
of the country. Such entrepreneurs must be compatible as per international
standard. The youths located in the urban areas, however, can avail many
facilities offered by many organizations and institutions, but reaching out to
the rural youth is a big task and it can be possible by involving various
institutions and organizations of repute including involving some local level
institutions/ agencies. In this respect, the national level institutions like
NI-MSME (Hyderabad), EDI (Ahmedabad), NIESBUD (Noida) and HE (Guwahati) are
involved in developing an entrepreneurial culture by conducting
Entrepreneurship Development Programmes (EDPs) or similar programmes in their
own campus as well as across the urban and rural areas. Various State level
entrepreneurship development institutions like CED/IED have also been involved
in developing entrepreneurship both in urban and rural areas. Universities,
Institutions in India have also introduced the entrepreneurship concept in their
academic curriculums in the beginning of the twentieth century.
In India, at present more than 2000 institutions,
organizations, forums and associations have been imparting various courses on
developing entrepreneurship. In addition, almost all the universities and other
institutions in India like management, engineering, commerce etc have introduced
entrepreneurship development in their academic curriculums. The dimensions and
focus areas have also been widened like general entrepreneurship development,
development of entrepreneurship for rural youth, women entrepreneurship, agri-entrepreneurship,
techno entrepreneurship, sustainable entrepreneurship, corporate
entrepreneurship (intrapreneurship), global entrepreneurship etc. In addition
some Institutions like EDI, NIESBUD, EMPI Business School, Nursee Monjee
Institute of Management etc have also introduced a few full time courses on
entrepreneurship development, rural entrepreneurship etc.
Developing Entrepreneurship in North East
In the North Eastern Region, the concept of developing
entrepreneurship was first introduced in Assam in the year 1973 when Government
of Assam under the Chief Ministership of Late Sarat Chandra Sinha introduced a
scheme called ‘Half a Million Job’ and which was entrusted to a new organisation
called the Entrepreneurial Motivation Training Centre (popularly known as EMTC)
under the State Planning Board. The Government of Assam also requested SIET
Institute, Hyderabad to be associated with EMTC mainly on training and research
in the field of entrepreneurship development. Nine EMTCs branches were set up in
different places of Assam. Similarly in the year 1973, the North Eastern
Industrial Consultancy Organisation (NEITCO) was created by development
financial institutions and banks and it started its operation from Guwahati. One
of the functions of NEITCO was organizing training programmes on
entrepreneurship development. In 1979, the SIET Institute, Hyderabad set-up its
NER Centre at Guwahati. This SIFT Institute became NISIET (NER Centre) in 1984
and the Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship (IIE) in 1994. In 1987, development
financial institutions and banks created another organization called the North
Eastern Consultancy Organisation (NECON) with its headquarter at Imphal
(Manipur). Entrepreneurship development is one of the activities of NECON. In
addition, organization like Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development
Institute (MSMEDI), National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), Khadi and
Village Industries Commission (KVIC) have been operating in the region for
developing entrepreneurship as well as micro and small enterprises. Other
organizations like NIRD, RGVN, CAPART, and a number of NGOs, Industry
Associations/ Forums etc have been engaged in developing entrepreneurship and
small enterprises in the region. Similarly, some state level organizations like
Directorate of Industries & Commerce including its District Industries and
Commerce Centres (DICC), Directorate of Rural Development (DRDA), State
Industrial Development Corporations (SIDCs) like ASTDC and AIDC (Assam), NIDC (Nagaland),
TIDC (Tripura), MIDC (Meghalaya), MANIDCO (Manipur), APSFDC (Arunachal Pradesh),
SIDICO (Sikkim) etc and also the State Institute of Rural Development (SIRDs),
State level Handloom and Handicrafts Development Corporations like NHHDC (Nagaland),
AGMC (Assam), MHHDC (Meghalaya), MIIHDC (Manipur), SHHDC (Sikkim), THHDC (Tripura)
etc are involved for developing entrepreneurship and enterprises in their
respective areas and states.
In the North Eastern Region, a large number of other
promotional, developmental and financial institutions/organizations like KVIC,
DC (Handicrafts), NSIC, NERAMAC, NEHHDC, Spices Board, Central Silk Board, Tea
Board, Coffee Board, Coconut Development Board, Rubber Board, Coir Board, APEDA,
MPEDA, NHB, TRIFED, NIRD etc have been organizing a number of training
programmes, research studies etc for the development of entrepreneurship in the
region. Similarly, financial institutions like SFCs, SIDBI, IDBI, NABARD, NEDFi
and Commercial Banks etc have also been set up (or opened their
branches/regional offices) in the North-Eastern Region to help the local
entrepreneurs. A number of committees, forums, associations like FINER, NESIA,
NEWEA, NECCI, ICC, CII, ASSIA, MEA, etc have also organized seminars, workshops,
training etc and have forwarded their recommendations to the central and state
governments on various issues from time to time for developing entrepreneurship
in the region. In-spite of all these efforts, the results are still slow and not
very encouraging as it should have been. However, there are many other reasons
like geographical isolation, limited infrastructural facilities, lack of
finance, lack of techno-economic information, stiff competition from outside,
high manufacturing cost etc which are also contributing to the slow growth of
industries in the region. But of all, the dearth of entrepreneurship is regarded
as one of the most important factors for the slow growth of industries in the
region. Some of the institutions in the region have also been trying to develop
the entrepreneurship culture by slightly changing the techniques and approaches
on trial and error methods. The results are yet to be seen.
Entrepreneurship Development in Nagaland
Nagaland, one of the eight states of North East India is a
hill economy marked by agriculture as the mainstay of all economic activities
with a small proportion of the populace engaged in the rearing of livestock,
weaving, black smithy, handloom and handicrafts. The State is predominantly
rural with 82.26 percent of the population living in villages. Over the last
decade, while the share of the primary sector has declined, the share of the
tertiary sectors has seen a steady increase. This is owing to the fact that
besides agriculture, it is retail trade and public administration which is
generating the maximum employment opportunities for the unemployed in the state.
According to live employment exchange registers of the state, more than 66,000
youths are presently unemployed. This is only a fraction of total unemployed in
the state which is presently around 6.5 percent. Though unemployment rate in
Nagaland is steadily increasing self employment rate has remained high.
Employment in Nagaland (released by NSSO) indicated that in the rural sector, as
much as 60 percent i.e. 596 per 1000 distribution of household by household type
are self employed in agriculture. While in the urban sector about 44 percent of
the population accounted for regular wage earners but about 43 percent of the
population were self employed.
In terms of self employment in the rural areas, 565 per
thousand are involved in the agriculture sector and 8 per thousand in
nonagriculture sector. In the urban areas self-employment accounts for 305 per
thousand households. Self employment based options in urban areas relate mostly
to simple bakery, fast food, confectionary, restaurant, hotel, resort, car
rental, tourism, stone crushing and other diverse merchandising business largely
in the service sector. This covers repair and servicing of a wide range of
objects starting from house hold implements, mobile repairing, photography, car
repairing and servicing etc and also covering even hi-tech computers and other
complex electronic gadgets. It also includes typical modern services such as
developing website, software development, computer accounting, DTP etc and also
tasks related to booking tickets, payment of bills and arranging for licenses
and permissions etc. In the manufacturing areas, a beginning has been made by
setting up of small units like still fabrication, wooden carpentary and
furniture making, handicrafts, scrap rubberized items etc. Though
self-employment has been the driving force in overall economic development of
the state, but lack of entrepreneurial attitude has not resulted in full
utilization of the inherent potential of the youths of the state. Recent
developments show youths coming forward with knowledge and acumen. This has
resulted in development of Trading business (11 percent), Hotel and Restaurant
Business (3 percent), Transport business (2 percent), Construction (1 percent),
Manufacturing (1 percent). These enterprises employ 18 percent of the total
workforce of the state.
According to the Planning Department of Nagaland, during last
two years (2010-11 and 201112) nearly 3,000 Naga youth were sent out for
training in different vocations. Government ofNagaland is supporting these
trainees with the idea that after returning these persons would start their own
business units. To supplement these trainees the state government has also drawn
up special package for Rs.10 Crores to assist the entrepreneurs as a part of the
capacity development initiative.
Though Nagaland’s young demographic profile has made the
State favourably placed in terms of manpower availability, but for the State’s
dismal performance in the manufacturing sector, it has failed to build up its
capacity to absorb the vibrant workforce. The severity of the unemployment
problem, therefore, is also on the rise in the State. Coupled with high rate of
pass outs from universities and colleges and compounded by lack of adequate
employment opportunities, the problem of educated unemployment and its resultant
effects is growing exponentially. Needless to say, industrialisation is an
integral part of any development. However, the remoteness of the State along
with poor infrastructure like road linkages and acute shortage of power along
with customary land laws that restrict the transfer of land to outside investors
continue to deter industrialisation in the State. Despite the prevailing
constraints, efforts at industrialisation continue in the State. The Paper Mill
in Tuli has been revived after being sick for more than 15 years. The
commissioning of the Nagaland Pulp & Paper Company Ltd. (NPPC), Tuli, with an
enhanced capacity from 100 metric tonnes to 200 metric tonnes per day is
expected to generate both direct and indirect employment. There has also been
creation of infrastructure for the growth of industries and service enterprises
in the state like the Industrial Growth Centre and the Export Promotion
Industrial Park. With a view to promote and develop bamboo and its potentials as
a major economic activity in the State, both as a resource and as an enterprise,
the Government of Nagaland has adopted the Nagaland Bamboo Policy in March 2004.
The handicrafts and handloom sector, the traditional
selfemployment avenues in the state has vast employment and livelihood
potential for growth due to availability of abundant skilled labour and raw
materials, as well as the rich cultural traditions of its people. Organised
efforts and methodical interventions for holistic upliftment of the sector for a
competitive reach in the world market can pave the way for larger sustainable
self-employment and also give a boost to the gross state domestic product.
To take up entrepreneurship development in a more streamlined
manner, the Government of Nagaland has initiated a series of capacity building
measures. This included declaring of the year 201011 as the ‘Year of
Entrepreneurs’ in Nagaland recognising the fact that Nagaland has been a
consumerist society and that it was time to start production through micro,
small and medium enterprises -i.e. the MSME sector to achieve self-sufficiency
in the State. To make this initiative successful, the Government of Nagaland
partnered with Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship (IIE) and Nagaland
Entrepreneurs Association. ITE was mandated with training up of 1,000 Naga
youths during the period so that they may take up entrepreneurship as career.
Even prior to the declaration of the ‘Year of Entrepreneur’
in Nagaland, efforts at developing the MSME sector were put into. Institutions
like the Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship (IIE) had come up with a DC-MSME
cluster on cane and bamboo in Dimapur, (Nagaland) in the year 2005-06. At the
start of the endeavour there were only eighteen volunteers ready to join and
form a part of the cluster but with the passage of time, the membership steadily
increased and the total strength of the cluster counted at eightytwo by the
time HE made an exit. The cluster later spread across a spatial area of 100 sq
km covering the districts of Dimapur, Kohima, Longleng, Mon, Mokokchung, Jalukie,
Phek and Zunheboto. The cluster could successfully provide handholding support
to a number of artisans in the cane and bamboo sector by guiding them and
providing with credit and market linkages and product upgradation and
Yet another area approach programme under the SIDBI called
the Rural Industries Programme (RIP) has been implemented in Dimapur, Nagaland.
Under the programme, HE has so far grounded around 97 MSME unites, out of which
87 with Bank Finance and 10 with proprietor’s finance. Around 900 beneficiaries
have been trained so far under this programme.
Do You Know What’s FDI?
Q. l. What is the objective of FDI?
It is the intent and objective of the Government of India to
attract and promote foreign direct investment in order to supplement domestic
capital, technology and skills, for accelerated economic growth. Foreign Direct
Investment, as distinguished from portfolio investment, has the connotation of
establishing a ‘lasting interest’ in an enterprise that is resident in an
economy other than that of the investor.
The Government has put in place a policy framework on Foreign
Direct Investment, which is transparent, predictable and easily comprehensible.
This framework is embodied in the Circular on Consolidated FDI Policy, which may
be updated every year, to capture and keep pace with the regulatory changes,
effected in the interregnum. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP),
Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India makes policy pronouncements
Q. 2. Who can invest in India?
A non-resident entity (other than a citizen of Pakistan or an
entity incorporated in Pakistan) can invest in India, subject to the FDI Policy.
A citizen of Bangladesh or an entity incorporated in Bangladesh can invest only
under the Government route. NRIs resident in Nepal and Bhutan as well as
citizens of Nepal and Bhutan are permitted to invest in the capital of Indian
companies on repatriation basis, subject to the condition that the amount of
consideration for such investment shall be paid only by way of inward remittance
in free foreign exchange through normal banking channels.
Q. 3. How will FDI in retain sector benefit?
- Entry of global retail giants is likely to see new investment, in the
short run, it has the potential to add 3-4 million new jobs
- Another 4-6 million jobs could be created in logistics, contract labour,
house-keeping and security
- Expected to help develop logistics, cold chains, warehouses
- Government revenues could get an additional $ 24-30 billion through
- Help reduce wastage of vegetables and other perishables and help in
taming inflation, For Consumers it could mean savingsof5-10% ,
- May help farmers get 10-30% higher remuneration
- Add to economic growth
Q. 4. What do the new rules say? What is single Brand retail?
- Government has allowed 100% FDI in single-brand retail
- The foreign investor should be the owner of the brand
- Products to be sold should be of a ‘single brand’ only
- Products should be sold under the same brand name in one or more
countries other than India
- Sourcing of 30 percent of the value of goods purchased will be done from
India preferably from small and medium units, village and cottage
industries, artisans and craftsmen
- Quantum of sourcing to be self certified, to be checked by statutory
- Retail trading, in any form, through e-commerce not allowed.
Q. 5. What is Multi-Brand retail?
- Government allows 51 % FDI in multi-brand retail
- Minimum amount to be brought in as FDI by the foreign investor would be
- At least 50% of total FOI to be invested in back-end infrastructure in
- At least 30% of the value of procurement of manufactured processed
products shall be sourced from Indian small industries which have a total
investment in plant and machinery not exceeding $1 million
- Retail sales outlets may be set up only in cities with a population of
more than 10 lakh as per 2011 census and may cover an area of 10 Km around
the municipal/urban limits of such cities
- Retail trading in any forms, by means of e-commerce would not be allowed
- Fresh farm produce, including fruits, vegetables, flowers, grains,
pulses, fresh poultry, fishery and meat products may be unbranded
- Government will have the first right to procure farm products
Q.6 Why foreign retailers want to enter India?
- Large market, rising disposable incomes and spending power
- The estimated size of the Indian retail market is about $450 billion.
Millenium Development Goal
- Goal 1: Ertadication of extreme Poverty and hunger
- Goal 2: Achieve Universaal Primary Education
- Goal 3: Promote Gender Equity and Empowerment
- Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality
- Goal 5: Improve Material Mortality
- Goal 6: Combamt HIV/AIDS malaria and other diseases
- Goal 7: Ensure Environment Sustainability
- Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Develop
Some Key Recommendations of 13th Finance Comission
Chaired by the distinguished economist Dr Vijay Kelkar
with Indira Rajaraman and Sanjiv Misra as members, the report outlining a
roadmap for fiscal consolidation in a medium-term framework stirred up a
hornets’ nest by focussing on slashing fuel and food subsidies, besides
recommending the rationalization of plan expenditures.
Pruning of fiscal deficit to three percent of GDP by 2014-15.
The rationale for a credible and effective fiscal
consolidation postulated by the committee is predicated on three major rounds:
the economy is in the state of high fiscal stress, with a ‘do-nothing’ approach
likely to result in a Central government fiscal deficit of 6.1 percent of GDP in
2012- 13; this could result from a likely shortfall in gross tax revenues by
around Rs 60,000 crore and higher than budgeted expenditures on subsidies, out
Rs 70,000 crore; (ii) this fiscal stress is also compounding the problem of twin
deficits, with the current account deficit at 4.2 percent of GDP last year and
possibly at 4.3 percent of GDP this year, at a time when the global market and
capital flows are exceedingly fragile and where financing of this magnitude is
creating huge risks for macroeconomic an external stability an ... the gross
borrowing requirement, already high, is likely to exceed last year’s level by a
large margin (5.8 percent of GDP versus 5.4 percent of GDP last year), leading
to crowding out of private sector financing for investment. Foreign exchange
reserves are falling and the currency is especially vulnerable, the report
cautioned adding that “the combination is reminiscent of the situation last seen
Referring to subsidies, it said subsidy on diesel was a major
contributor to fiscal slippage in recent years.
The Kelkar Committee said polity goal should be to eliminate
the LPG subsidy by a2014-15 by reducing it by 25 percent this year with the
remaining 75 percent reduction over the next two years. For kerosene, the aim is
to reduce the subsidy one one-third by 2014-15.
In fertilizer subsidy, it proposed an immediate revision in
the price of urea not only to prune the high subsidy but also cut down the
unsustainable imbalance in the current consumption pattern of fertilizer.
On food subsidy, it plumped for an increase in the central
issue price (CIP) supplied through public distribution system, though it
suggests that the increase may be targeted to shield poorer sections of the
society by limiting the price increase to consumers above the poverty line
Alongside it also favoured more efficient foodgrain delivery
operations in the medium term.
Mechanical Innovations for Commercial Applications
UDDHAB BHARALl (48) is a serial innovator who has designed
and prototyped an entire range of mechanical innovations since his lust
innovations in 1987. He has innovated around eighty-five engineering devices for
different purposes. Out of these thirteen have found commercial applications,
albeit most being individual custom orders from different parts of the country.
As of today, he has set up a research workshop in his idyllic hometown of North
Lakhimpur. It is a small town, on the banks of the Brahmaputra river and in the
foothills of the Himalayas, surrounded by lush tea gardens on gentle slopes. He
has set up a workshop to help local communities and industries solve their
Since he first developed the Polythene making machine in
1988, Bharali has developed a number of machines, which he considers as his main
assets that have and will always help in his time of need. Some of these
Pomegranate De-seeder: It separates the outer cover and thin
inner membrane without damaging the seeds. It has a capacity of deseeding 50-55
kg of pomegranate fruits per hour. The machine has been exported to Turkey and
Arecanut Peeler: Annoyed by the injuries caused while peeling
the areca nuts manually, he developed an areca nut peeling machine with a
capacity of peeling 100-120 nuts per minute.Cassava peeler: It is a portable
electric machine that can process up to five kg of cassava per minute. NIF
facilitated the technology licensing on nonexclusive basis to a Guwahati based
entrepreneur. One unit has even been sold to a customer based in Kenya.
Bamboo processing machines: Bamboo processing by hand is a time consuming and
difficult process. Bharali has developed an assembly of machines that can
perform operations like splitting long lengths of bamboo, sizing, surface
finishing, polishing etc. These units have been installed with the help of NIF
in a CFC (Common Facility Centre) of the NERCRMP (North Eastern Region Community
Resource Management Project) at North Cachar hills in Assam.
Bharali has also developed remi recortication machine, garlic
peeling machine, tobacco leaf cutter, paddy thresher, cane stripping machine,
brass utensil polishing machine, Jatropha de-seeder, mechanized weeding machine,
passion fruit juice extractor, trench digger, chopper for cattle and fisheries
feed and portable dheki.
For many of his innovations, the innovator was supported
under the Micro Venture Innovation Fund scheme (MVIF) at NIF. Facilitated by NIF,
the innovator was also supported from the TePP scheme at DSIR, Government of
Nagaland-A Land of Festivals
Hornbill Festival was launched by Government of Nagaland in
the first year of new millenium. Since then the Government controlled festival
is being organized in the first week of December every year. Though, the
weeklong festival unites one and all in Nagaland and take a shape of fair,
people from all corners of the state, neighbouring states and abroad gather
together to enjoy the colourful performances, crafts, sports, food fairs, games
and ceremonies. Traditional arts like hand-paintings, wood carvings and
sculptures are also displayed in this festival. In addition, one can enjoy
flower shows, cultural medley, songs and dances, fashion shows, beauty contest,
traditional archery, Naga wrestling, indigenous games and musical concert.
Unusual events like climbing greased bamboo pole and Naga King Chili eating
contest evolve great response. Finally, herbal medicine stalls in the fair draw
After enjoying the symphony of traditional tribal cultures of
different tribes and sub-tribes of Nagaland, if you have interest in historical
artifacts, visit the Kohima War Cemetery. This cemetery is a tribute to the
soldiers who laid down their lives during World War 11. The dead bodies of
around 1100 British and 330 Indian soldiers were buried here.
The widely publicized Hornbill Festival is a bit
sophisticated compared to rituals in traditional festivals of Nagaland. It does
not follow the rituals that are elaborate or spontaneous like festivals
celebrated in the villages. Specifically, festival in particular times of the
year when the entire village participate in the rituals. Here, the rituals are
more compact as to make it look simpler and acceptable to spectators from
outside the state.
Aoleng Monyu is celebrated by the Konyak tribe of Mou district to observe the
traditional post-sowing festival period. This six days long festival is
celebrated in the month ofAolengLee (March-April). Here prayers are performed to
deities Youngwan and Kaahshih for health, harvest, safety and progeny and local
delicacies i.e. pound, chop and brew rice, meat and beer are served. Fishing,
hunting, and sports to singing, dancing and feasting are regular phenomena. In
earlier times, Aoleng Monyu was also an occasion for settling engagements and
Bushu is an eight day long festival observed in last week of
January by the Kachari tribe in Dimapur district. To the Kachari, Bushu is music
for the soul. Kacharis celebrate Bushu with a lot of singing, dancing and merry
making are also part of the festival and showing respect to the elders as
ritual. A Muree, bagpiper like local flute, is played throughout the festival.
The Zeme and Liangmai tribe generally known as Zeliang of
Peren district observe the postsowing festival, Meleingi n ChegaN-Khia during
March and October every year. With the chanting of the village priest the
festival starts with lighting a fire as a symbol of protection to the women and
children from enemies and wild beasts. Villagers take the holy fire to their
houses and to cook their own food. During this festival, the women enjoy a
recess from their daily routine of weaving and household work. The festival also
gives opportunity for family get-together, exchange of gifts, arranging
community feast, hosting drinking parties and other cultural activities. Besides
the young unmarried men as a traditional practice go for invading the forest to
show their gallantry to their girlfriends.
Metum-Neo festival is observed in two districts i.e. Tuensang
and Kiphire by the Yimchungru tribe. The harvest festival starts on August 8 and
continuous for five days. As per local belief, the rice beer-loving god Arimpuh
wants his followers to take a five day break from harvesting millets. After an
announcement by the priest that the festival is on, the healthiest animal is
sacrificed. Portions of meat are distributed among the villagers. Other than
seeking prosperity, it is the time to forget enmity and propagate friendship
through a series of community activities through sports, singing, dancing etc.
The ‘Ao’ tribe of Mokokchung district celebrate Moatsu as a
post-sowing festival during May for six days. Tug-of -War sport is arranged to
mark the activities of ‘stretching of paddy’. In fact, Moatsu means better
harvest in the days to come. During the festival the Aos try to appease their
god Lijaba by sacrificing pigs and cattle. The cooked meat and rice beer are
served by the women to the dancing youth who move around the village to expel
the evil. Village head delivers his advices on the issues that need to be
addressed in near future. Circulation of government policies through Moatsu
altar is a recent addition.
During September every year the Sangtam tribe of Tuensang/
Kiphire district observe a six days long harvesting festival known as Mongmong.
‘Six’ is a sacred number for the Sangtam community. A baby boy is named after
six days of his birth. During the festival one baberu (priest) announces a dummy
festival for the spirits of the dead and another baberu declares the actual
Mongmong for the living ones. The actual celebrations starts after observing
Musuyangtap, a custom to pay obeisance to three stones in the kitchen harth
representing god Lijaba. Monyu is a post-sowing new year festival observed in
the first six days of a peril of every year by the Phom tribe of Longleng
district. Monyu means affection and respect to the women and provides an
opportunity for the male members of the family to show their affection to their
married daughters and sisters by giving them the best rice beer and specially
prepared food. The festival ends with the elderly people exchanging meat and
jugs of rice beers The Chang Tribe of Tuensang district celebrates Nakyulum in
mid-July every year to get rid of darkness. The oldest man of the village takes
the lead to decorate the community dormitory and distribution of millet cakes
among the children.
Nazhu a sowing festival is observed during February for ten
days by the Pochury tribe of Phek district. Nazhu is all about the spiritual
connection between the living and the dead and between the people and their
unseen protector. Besides, Nazhu promotes a bonding within the community. Apart
from other functions, selection of partners by the unmarried youth is also a
component of the Nazhu festival.
Sekrenyi is a ten day long harvesting festival being
celebrated by the Angami tribe of Kohima district. The official festival day is
February 25. InAngami philosophy, a human body is a combination of Umo
(physical) and Euphu (meta physical). So the human body warrants periodic
purification. Water is the best cleansing agent. The festival starts with
ceremonial cleansing bath by the male members of the community in the sacred
well. Drops of sacred water are sprinkled on two new shawls - one white and
another black which are to be worn by the young men during the festival as a
part of the ritual. Women are not allowed to touch the purification well but
they have to clean their own houses before the festival.
Like Sekrenyi festival of the Angami, the Chakhesang tribe of
Phek district observe Sukryunyi a ten day long harvesting festival in
mid-January. Here a specific day reserved for the mothers to perform
purification of their daughters by the water of sacred well. The hunted animals
and birds are slung on tall bamboo poles outside the main clan houses. Such a
display indicates prosperity of the village and the victory over enemies in the
year ahead. The rituals as usual give away to social feasting for promotion of
better interaction within the community.
The Lotha tribe of Wokha district celebrates Tokhu Emong, a
nine day long post-harvest festival during first week of November. Pieces of
meat, preferably in multiples of three are gifted to friends and kin to express
closeness. Boiled rice, cooked liver and rice beer are placed on the grave of
the deceased for his or her soul. Unlike other festivals Tokhu Emong is a
festival of resting and it bars villagers from any activities like hunting,
fishing indulging in trade and travel.
Tsokum is an eight day long harvest festival celebrated by
the Khiamniungan tribe of Tuensang district. Worship and sacrificial offerings
to the spirit is a part of the festival. Formation of a new Jhum field is also
commenced during Tsokum. By rule, the host cannot divulge their proposed Jhum
land to friends or members of their community. The festival is an occasion to
infuse social discipline for promoting culture of sharing of resources. An
interesting part of this festival is that some time is set aside for discussions
on village administration and storytelling through which elders pass on
traditional messages to the youngsters. During the festival the importance of
the remembering the dead are ritually observed.
North Eastern Rural Livelihood Project
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved
implementation of North East Rural Livelihood Project (NERLP) on 16th November
2011 at an estimated cost of Rs 683.2 crore, comprising assistance as a soft
loan from the World Bank of Rs 614.8 crore and Central Government funding of Rs
68.4 crore, in two selected districts each of four States of Mizoram, Nagaland,
Sikkim and Tripura. The North East Rural Livelihood Project has become effective
in March, 2012. Recruitment process for Regional Project Monitoring Unit and
eight District Project Management Units is in final stages.
The objective of NERLP is to improve rural livelihoods
especially that of women, unemployed youth and of most disadvantaged; by
providing access to economic opportunities, improving adoption of sustainable
agricultural and natural resource management through establishing participatory
and accountable community based institutions. Targeted outcome indicators of
project development objectives are:
(i) At least 60% of women Self Help Group members achieve minimum increase of
30% in income, in real terms by end of project.
(ii) At least 30% of project-benefited unemployed youths are employed.
(iii) At least 50% of disadvantaged households achieve minimum of 30%
improvement in livelihood indices from entry into the project.
The project aims at providing resources to engage various
private and public sector organizations who in turn will assist Producer
Organizations and Self Help Groups to access better market information and
latest technology, obtain higher returns for their produce and help communities
align their produce better with market demands. Following strategies are
proposed for marketing and for establishing marketing linkages around them:
- support for production cluster development, collective marketing, market
infrastructure development, market intelligence collection, analysis and
- value chain analysis and linkage support;
- public-private partnership;
- linkage with nodal agencies to facilitate marketing;