(Sample Material) UPSC IAS Mains History (Optional) Study Kit "American Revolution"

Sample Material of Our IAS Mains History Study Kit

Subject: History (Optional)

Topic: American Revolution

American Revolution was a very important chapter in the history of the world. It gave a very serious jolt to mercantilism and colonialism and it was deeply associated with middle class aspiration. So it was middle class revolution. After this revolution America became a symbol for colonial liberation so it inspired the liberation movement in future. Furthermore U.S.A. became a living example of democratic republican government the Federal structure and individual freedom.

Weather it was simply a war of independence or American Revolution as well:

According to some critics American revolution was basically a war of independence not a revolution as it provided national liberation but not bring reform in socio-economic structure but when we examine the things closely we come to conclusion that although in comparison to French revolution it brought limited change in socio-economy structure but still it should be characterised as Revolution. It was due to the fact that even limited reforms in brought in socio-economic structure put U.S.A. for ahead then contemporary Europe later it encouraged the aspiration of French revolutionaries. That why we should accept that it was simultaneously a war of independence as well a revolution both.

Causes of American Revolution

1. The clash in economic interest: There was a basic contradiction between British colonial interest and the interest of the American people. British govt. tries to enforce navigation laws in Amass. These were inspired by marcantilished policy who objective was to put check over the such completion in shipping, wit this purpose the navigation act was introduce in 1651, 1660, 1666. Furthermore to British merchant having the monopole over purchase of rice and tobacco in American colony.

2. Specific nature of American society: Certain features of American society make it different from European one. For example in American settlement feudalism was almost absent, peasants were having the control over the land and Aristocratic class was enjoying less privilege.
These factors make American a bit more progressive then European Apart from that like European American were not bound through a common parented heritage rather they were inspired by a common future programmed. Furthermore America was a continent of abundance with vast natural redolence, this phenomena make average American more optimistic.

3. Now American settlement were rising from the status of colonies and taking the shape of a nation. In other words America was a nation in making but British was not ready to recognize its new identity. (Ex—Benjamin Franklin the conference of Alburtis)

4. The interest of different classes of America were deeply associated with objective of the revolution. For example the merchants favoured Revolution in order to ensure the policy of lessaie fair in future. Smugglers were offended at the strict enforcement of the only smuggling laws. The plantation peasants of South American states were indicated to European merchants who had provided the advance money on heir plantation crops. So, these peasants were not having obligation to return money or to give plantation corps in the condition of American independence.

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Last but not list tobacco producer of Virginia were inclined to move west-ward in order occupied the fresh land for tobacco production. But it meant the expansion of Aborigine (Red Indians/living in regions so British govt. put a band over their west-ward expansion so they were offended at govt. restriction all the disgruntle classes full behind the politician who were thinking interns of political libration.

5. The difference between Britain and American Settlement on constitutional issue: Britain continue to emphasis the doctrine of parliamentary supremacy Americans were inclined to the natural right of man.

6. American had the aspiration for political libration but they could not go into this direction for the fear of the French occupation of America. But when Britain defeated France in of year war and capture Canada then American settlement became free from British danger they could thing yourself for liberates.

7. Immediate factor: Before 1765 the navigation act was simply on the paper. It was the govt. of Green wile which decided to enforce it strictly and this decision led to conflict between American Settlement and Britain and finally it led to the liberation movement.
The American war of independence deprived great Britain of one empire but it strengthen the foundation of another. (For the tissue being suspended)

Impact of American Revolution

1. American settlement got Independence.
2. The first written constitution based on Republican and federal structure.
3. Mass participation in politics.
4. Promotion of the policy of lessaie fair.
5. Certain socio-economic rights of women were accepted.
6. American Revolution influence even British politics it gives serious toll to the power of monarchy. So ultimately led to democracy of parliament.
7. American Revolution put its impact even over other parts of Europe as it was middle class revolution so it strings then the position of the middle class in Europe.
8. One can underline its greater influence on France it did not simply give an ideological support to French revolution but also created or material situation for that.
9. American Revolution influence even the colonial policy towards white dominated calories like South Africa, Canada Australia and New Zealand. Earlier they were give the concession in course of time they were offered even dominion status. Furthermore in context of India, Pits India act was introduced after losing America. Britain move towards India and gave this colony higher value. After American revolution British modified its policy even to Ireland.

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