Sample Material of Our IAS Mains History Study Kit
Subject: History (Optional)
The term decolonalisation denotes the fact that liberation of
colony was very smooth and simple. But this phenomenon cannot be accepted as the
process of colonization was difficult so was the decolonalisation. But still we
underline some different in context of different countries. For example, the
process proved smooth in context of some countries but a bit a tougher in case
of some other.
There were a number of factors which proved instrumental
behind decolonalisation. Even in the end of 19th century. Some events which gave
series blow imperialism, took place. In 1899, in Transvaal region in South
Africa, British power came into conflict with the so called bores. Likewise in
1896 Ethiopia defeated a colonial power, Italy furthermore in 1898 war started
between Spain and USA on the issue of liberation of Cuba and Philippines. All
events these were a serious warnings to the colonial powers.
Even after First World War decolonalisation was encouraged in fact the First
World War was fought on the issue of democracy and freedom it certainly gave a
message to colonial people.
Further more in the Paris peace conference the aspiration of
colonial people was encouraged further more as it talked of the right to self
judgment of different nationalization in Europe on the basis of 14 point
programme of Wilson. But in true sense the proper decolonalisation started after
the Second World War. Certain factors were responsible for the decolonalisation
some scholars try to find out these factors at three different levels;
1. First one was in other words we can say that anti-colonial
consciousness was being encouraged on world level. UNO, USA and USSR proved
instrumental behind this. The Atlantic charter for Soviet Russia being the
protect for of communist/suppressed class, widely advocated for decolonization.
Even USA presented herself as a protector of Human Rights.
2. On the other hand there were some it also encouraged
3. Thirdly there were some arranges, in fact in a number of
colonies, anti-imperialistic forces emerged initially they main rested
themselves in the form of proto-nationalism. In course of time they expressed
themselves in modern nationalism.
Except factors mentioned above some other factors also were responsible for
decolonalisation. Even Christian missionaries plays some role as the talk thus
they unconclouries the resection colonies .
Marxist ideas were having some role it worked as an
incentive. It was the colonial people, new proletariat. Thus he successfully
linked decolonalisation to Marxist strategy Except this even Asia African
countries developed three different ideologies for colonial protest. The first
idea was Islamic Jehad. Some Asio-African countries carried anti-imperialist
protest in the name of Islamic Jahad.
The second ideology was that of Asianism. This ideology
encouraged self respect among Asians. Furher Japan encouraged this ideology by
giving the slogan “ Asia for Asians “. The third ideology was that of “All
Africans”. In the end of 19th century, African people challenged supremacy of
Europeans. The earlier exponent of this idea was Markgarbe. It was further
encouraged by another scholar, Deox. This compelled UNO to adopt a charter of
Some western scholars tried to establish that in
decolonalisation even colonial powers also took some initiative. For example,
USA liberated her 13 colonies in America in 1783. Gradually, even Canada,
Australia, New Zealand and South Africa got independence. Even in context of
India, British gave some concessions time to and ultimately India got freedom in
1947. But it is very difficult to accept this thesis. Thus, we can say that this
decolonalisation was not willingly accepted by the Western powers. Secondly, if
we accept this thesis, the role of national movement in colonial liberation is
If we observe British, French and Dutch colonies, we come to
a conclusion that all these colonial powers adopted different colonial policies.
Objectives of British was to educate and train the colonial people for self
government. But France had a very tough approach to its coloniaes. France was
not ready to give any concession to its colonial people. Instead, she was
emphasizing over more and more assimilation of colonies with the government of
Paris. Likewise, approach of Holland was different from that of British and
Franch. Dutch adopted a model, something between British and Franch. She
emphasized over efficient management of colonies.
After Second World War, decolonalisation started in British
Empire. Government of Atlee was convinced that it cannot move the clock in
reverse direction. So, he declared that India would get freedom by June 1948 in
all conditions. And ultimately on 15th August, 1947, India got freedom. In 1948,
even Burma and Sri Lanka got independence. Although, upto 1945, no African
political party declared complete freedom as its objective. But in 1958, Gold
Goast became independence name of Ghana. In 1960, Nigeria got freedom, though
there was some difference between the situation in Eastern and that of Western
Africa. In Easter African countries, like Kenya and Tanzania, there was
substantial population of white minority. Further more, Eastern African region
was not as much developed as Western one. So, conservative government of Britain
Tried to make confederation of East African regions to maintain partial control
over it. But the government could not check force of liberty and independent in
1961. Became independent in 1964 and lastly, in 1979 and 80, Southern Rhodesia
became independent in the name of Zimbabwe.