Sample Material of Our IAS Mains History Study Kit
Subject: History (Optional)
Topic: League of Nations
League of nations was the first international organization which worked for
collective peace. It had to full fill the multifold responsibilities but + 0
maintain peace and order was most important of them In 1919 the total number of
its member was 41 which increased to 50 to 1924 and finally 60 in 1934
League of nation got a lot of achievement in various fields:
(1) It was the for the first time under the supervision of
league of nation it became possible that the victor party could not absorb the
regions of the defeated party. Inspite of fact that the region was separated
from defeated party and put under the control of the victor party for time
being. For example Saarland
(2) league of nations even took responsibility for supervising the activities of
different powers in those colonies in Asia, Africa and pacific region that was
given to them under the mandate system.
(3) League of nation had to face nearly 14 dispute and it got success to solving
many dispute pertaining to smaller nations. For example the dispute between
turkey and Iraq. The dispute between Sweden and Finland an Aaland island. etc.
(4) In welfare works and humanitarian work league of nations got greater success
for example league of nations worked for eradication of some contiguous
diseases. Likewise page of nation got success in putting a ban over trafficking
women, children and slaves.
(5) Different organs: League of Nations having three different organs. There
were such as assembly council and secretariat in assemble all the member
countries were given the representation. in council decide major policies
selected countries were given power on rotation basis secretariat provided
bureurocratic structure to the leage Apart from that there were two initiations
which worked under the league of nation but were not part of it these were
permanent court of internation justice and international labour organization.
(6) Reasons behind the failure : league was formed under the influence of the
Anglo-American view of democratization. So, League was given the form of an
organization meant for democracies discussion among the member countries without
co-ercive method. This view was not accepted by France Earlier France had
favored the formation of an organization with powerful teeth and cocracive power
which could maintain the European works. But this proposal was not accepted
(7) From the very early time league of nation looks the support of its founder
(8) Initially the defeated party and soviet union were not given the memberships
which gave birth impression that the league of nation of an organization of the
(9) Even the constitution of league of nations was having its own weak-ness, the
provision unanimity clause prove a fatal flow. In the constitution.
According to Art (5) action could be taken against any country only after the
complete consensus among the member of council but it was not practically
possible. Some critic has slightly declared the league of nation was destroyed
on the ‘twin rocks’ of unanimity clause and the lack of support from U.S.N
Balfod dellare–under this degrdaration jew were promised for their home land
Sandi Arabia (Hezaza)
Cause of conflict between Arabian nationalism and company:
(i) To extracted too much oil. So that the price of oil be low.
(ii) Proper royalty to Arabian nations
(iii) Above intervention of European nation.
(iv) Formation of OPEC – 1960
(v) 14th may 1948 Jews declared to be nation. Due to land mark of phalis Hn
1984, 1964, 1970, 11 and OS/0 conference.
FACISM AND NAZISM
NATIONALISM: It give too much emphasis power of the state.
Socialism: It also believe powerful state.
Racism emerged after the product of an evolutionary process then the
contemporary circumstances promoted it so much so that it came to surface. A
number of factors made a contribution to the rise of Fascism
1. After the unification of Italy and Germany both emerged to
be the powerful nations and followed the policy of imperialist expansion. They
were not having the respect for European order or international norms. As they
could not forget the fact that if they were created or emerged to be nation.
Only after challenging European order. Such a perception resultant into an
aggressive foreign policy.
2. Italy and Germany both emerged to be disgruntle power
(dissatisfied power) ofter the first world war. It was their grived nationalism
which created a place for rise of facism.
3. Words Economic depression strengthen the position of
facist party in Europe. As we that world Economic depression exposed the basic
weakness in capitalism. Consequently, there was a progress of socialist and
communist parties all over Europe. Obviously, the middle class (capitalist as
well rich peasantry were worried at the progress of left party so they supported
the fascist party against socialist and communist.
Fascism did not appear simply in Itally and Jermany but it
manifested it self even spread even to other parts of the world. For example a
facist govt. was formed in Japan. Apart from that facist regime appeared in some
latin American countries like Brazile Baxicoa, Chille etc.