(Sample Material) UPSC IAS Mains History (Optional) Study Kit "The Cold War"

Sample Material of Our IAS Mains History Study Kit

Subject: History (Optional)

Topic: The Cold War

The term cold war was first coined by “Walter Lippman”, a scholar. For the first time this term was used in order to express the tension between the two important powers. This tension was deeply aggravated by psychological pressure & ideological differences. It was a war that was fought without the use of weapons. It was a sort of a psychological battle, where objective was to limit the area of influence of other powers

According to some scholars it represents – ideological different, but according to some others, power.

There were certain reasons behind the beginning of cold war. In one sense , cold war was the product of specific his the two important powers issues world war was not a new thing in history. Likewise, after every important war some sort of new tension emerges in international politics. We underline this fact even after Napoleonic war and the first world war likewise, when the second world war concluded, there was decline of Germany, which was common enemy to allied powers. Then ruptures and conflicts emerged in allied group as a result, Russia and USA divided into the two different groups.

On ideological level soviet Russia was associated with idea of World revolution, that’s why it was trying to win newly independent AsioAfrican countries to its side group was too much cautious to accept this. They declared Soviet Union as the enemy of human freedom in this way both the groups were accusing each other importents of behind war was mutual dust. Western countries invaded Russia course of Russian revolution. In 1917 soviet Russia took it as invasion by capitalist world.

On the other hand, western countries were terrified by the idea of world revolution proposed by Russia. A subordinate leader; Lenin, Trotsky had declared that Lenin and Wilson both are two different poles in this world. The mutual distrust was growing day by day when in 1930 there was emergence of fascism Russia tried normalise the relation with western countries so that they should effectively face the challenge presented by Fascist the western powers. But the western countries were suspicious of Russian behavior. When the Westerns powers adopted the policy of appeasement. Towards Fascist powers Russia became convinced about the fact that western countries were inclined to make a peaceful co-existence with the Fascist power and they were trying to use Fascism against Russia. Thus because of this Stalin concluded a non aggression pact with Hitler. Western powers were completely dissatisfied with this step. But inspire of this fact Soviet Russia and Western power made a second front against Germany and axis powers but even before the end of Seconds World War differences again started [(allied powers of Britain and USA did not open second front against Germany which was invading Russia). After surrender of Italy terms were decided on the condition of allied powers in which Russia was not made a party inspite of being one of the members).

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Development of cold war:

In the course of Second World War itself, differences emerged between Russia and USA as well as Britain. Russia was convinced at out the fact that if allied powers might have opened the second front. Russia could not have under one through this phase of great loss. Likewise when likely Allied powers themselves fixed terms and condition Italy any without Russia was disturbed at this step.

In the course of Second World War itself differences emerged on the issue of Balkan States. On the question of future of these state signed between Stalin and Churchill on October 1944. Infact here approach of Churchill was much Pragmatic For Roosvel and Truman the terms like democracy and freedom were of much significance, but Churchill had a strong confidence in concept of Balance of Power. That’s ehy, he concluded a treaty on practical grounds. Churchil accepted the specific position of Russia in Romania, and in return the claimed privileges of Britain in Greece. But in the mean time communist governments were formed by Stalin in all the disputed Balkan states except Greece.

Here Roosvelt adopted a very liberal approach to communism Soviet Union because he was looking towards the friendship with Soviet Union against Japan. He sought the active cooperation of Soviet Union against the war with Japan . Thus in this meeting it was decided in elected government. So far as the question of Poland was concerned it was decided that existing government of Poland under Lubin Poles would make some way for the participation of some members from parallel government working at London. To conclude with we can say that this conference was in favour of Soviet Union that’s why the successive President of USA Truman, blamed of Roosevelt for the union charged with virtual sellout of Balkan States and China to Soviet Union.

In July 1945 a conference was held at Pestern in this conference, USA USSR and Britain participated. These countries were represented by, respectively here also USSR promised to hold the elections in Balkan States whereas in practical terms, she did nothing substantial in this regard. Furthermore Germany was under the occupying army of USA, Britain USSR and France. Likewise even capital of Germany, Berlin was under control of these four occupying armies At the persisting requests by capitalist power, USSR was not taking any concrete decision about future of Germany, in the mean time elections were held in Austria in November 1947. In the elections communists were defeated so Stalin became too much alarmed at the future of Germany as East German region and portion of Berlin were under his control.

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