Sample Material of Our IAS Mains History Study Kit
Subject: History (Optional)
Topic: The Cold War
The term cold war was first coined by “Walter Lippman”, a
scholar. For the first time this term was used in order to express the tension
between the two important powers. This tension was deeply aggravated by
psychological pressure & ideological differences. It was a war that was fought
without the use of weapons. It was a sort of a psychological battle, where
objective was to limit the area of influence of other powers
According to some scholars it represents – ideological
different, but according to some others, power.
There were certain reasons behind the beginning of cold war.
In one sense , cold war was the product of specific his the two important powers
issues world war was not a new thing in history. Likewise, after every important
war some sort of new tension emerges in international politics. We underline
this fact even after Napoleonic war and the first world war likewise, when the
second world war concluded, there was decline of Germany, which was common enemy
to allied powers. Then ruptures and conflicts emerged in allied group as a
result, Russia and USA divided into the two different groups.
On ideological level soviet Russia was associated with idea
of World revolution, that’s why it was trying to win newly independent
AsioAfrican countries to its side group was too much cautious to accept this.
They declared Soviet Union as the enemy of human freedom in this way both the
groups were accusing each other importents of behind war was mutual dust.
Western countries invaded Russia course of Russian revolution. In 1917 soviet
Russia took it as invasion by capitalist world.
On the other hand, western countries were terrified by the
idea of world revolution proposed by Russia. A subordinate leader; Lenin,
Trotsky had declared that Lenin and Wilson both are two different poles in this
world. The mutual distrust was growing day by day when in 1930 there was
emergence of fascism Russia tried normalise the relation with western countries
so that they should effectively face the challenge presented by Fascist the
western powers. But the western countries were suspicious of Russian behavior.
When the Westerns powers adopted the policy of appeasement. Towards Fascist
powers Russia became convinced about the fact that western countries were
inclined to make a peaceful co-existence with the Fascist power and they were
trying to use Fascism against Russia. Thus because of this Stalin concluded a
non aggression pact with Hitler. Western powers were completely dissatisfied
with this step. But inspire of this fact Soviet Russia and Western power made a
second front against Germany and axis powers but even before the end of Seconds
World War differences again started [(allied powers of Britain and USA did not
open second front against Germany which was invading Russia). After surrender of
Italy terms were decided on the condition of allied powers in which Russia was
not made a party inspite of being one of the members).
Development of cold war:
In the course of Second World War itself, differences emerged
between Russia and USA as well as Britain. Russia was convinced at out the fact
that if allied powers might have opened the second front. Russia could not have
under one through this phase of great loss. Likewise when likely Allied powers
themselves fixed terms and condition Italy any without Russia was disturbed at
In the course of Second World War itself differences emerged
on the issue of Balkan States. On the question of future of these state signed
between Stalin and Churchill on October 1944. Infact here approach of Churchill
was much Pragmatic For Roosvel and Truman the terms like democracy and freedom
were of much significance, but Churchill had a strong confidence in concept of
Balance of Power. That’s ehy, he concluded a treaty on practical grounds.
Churchil accepted the specific position of Russia in Romania, and in return the
claimed privileges of Britain in Greece. But in the mean time communist
governments were formed by Stalin in all the disputed Balkan states except
Here Roosvelt adopted a very liberal approach to communism
Soviet Union because he was looking towards the friendship with Soviet Union
against Japan. He sought the active cooperation of Soviet Union against the war
with Japan . Thus in this meeting it was decided in elected government. So far
as the question of Poland was concerned it was decided that existing government
of Poland under Lubin Poles would make some way for the participation of some
members from parallel government working at London. To conclude with we can say
that this conference was in favour of Soviet Union that’s why the successive
President of USA Truman, blamed of Roosevelt for the union charged with virtual
sellout of Balkan States and China to Soviet Union.
In July 1945 a conference was held at Pestern in this
conference, USA USSR and Britain participated. These countries were represented
by, respectively here also USSR promised to hold the elections in Balkan States
whereas in practical terms, she did nothing substantial in this regard.
Furthermore Germany was under the occupying army of USA, Britain USSR and
France. Likewise even capital of Germany, Berlin was under control of these four
occupying armies At the persisting requests by capitalist power, USSR was not
taking any concrete decision about future of Germany, in the mean time elections
were held in Austria in November 1947. In the elections communists were defeated
so Stalin became too much alarmed at the future of Germany as East German region
and portion of Berlin were under his control.