(Sample Material) IAS Mains History (Optional) Study Kit "United Nations Organization"

Sample Material of Our IAS Mains History Study Kit

Subject: History (Optional)

Topic: United Nations Organization (UNO)

UNO came into existence in 1945. It just replaced the League of Nations which did not prove effective to prevent the Second World War. In fact it could the progress of Fascism and Nazism. UNO was made a more powerful body to deal effectively with international problems. UNO intervened into a number of world problem. It became successful in dealing with some of them but turned to be failure in solving some other problems. Generally UNO became much more successful in solving the problems in which no super power was a party.

Palestine problem: In 1947 a conflict started between Palestine and Jews on the issue of motherland the question was brought to UNO. UNO just divided the Palestine region between the Palestinian and Jews . In fact this verdict of UNO is much controversial in the history of UNO . Arab countries never accepted this verdict and ultimately this resulted into continuous conflicts between Arab countries and is real.

Kashmir problem: In 1947, India and Pakistan got freedom. Then conflict started between them over possession of Kashmir. Ultimately, UNO intervened into the matter and a ceasefire was declared under UNO in 1947. Then there was a provision of referendum. Pakistan had to fulfil certain conditions. Pakistan had to with draw her army from Pak Occupied Kashmir (POK), so that referendum could be conducted peacefully. But Pakistan did not fulfill this condition. On the issue of Kashmir, UNO was not much successful even after 1947. Later, the issue of Kashmir came out of perview of Union the basis of Shimla agreement.

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Korean crisis: In 1950, Korea was under the Japanese occupation, but was liberated by allied powers in the course of Second World War. After this was occupied Russia and Southern one by capitalist powers. Even in Yalta conference that concluded in Febrary 1945, issue of Korea came into the light. Softliner President, Roosvelt, accepted Russian hegemony in Northern Korea. Even after 1945, capitalist countries were making persistent efforts for the reunification of Korea and forming a democratically elected government there. When upto 1948 Western powers did not become successful in this effort due to opposition from Russia, then they planned to form a democratic government only in Southern Korea. Under the supervision of UNO a democratically elected government under Sing-Man-Rie was formed in South Korea in June 1949. Just after the formation of government USA decided to withdraw its army from South Korea in June 1949. Just after withdrawl of USA North Korea with the help of 1000 Russian tanks invaded Southern Korea. Now, USA and Western powers were much alarmed. USA brought the matter to UNO and under the leadership of UNO a joint command of army comprising 16 countries was created to liberate South Korea. In this commend leading role was played by USA . US general. McArthur, was supreme commander who successfully liberated South Korea by expelling North Korea invadors but after that McArthur enthusiastically extended into North Korea region and penetrated deep into it. So China reacted to this situation and at least 2lakh Chinese soldiers became involved in this conflict on behalf of North Korea. Then, Chinese successfully expelled joint command from North Korea region. It turned to be a big humiliatation for western powers. Even America and Western powers were supposed to be the invaders and neutrality of UNO in general and of its secretary general particular was in question. It was a great lesson to Western power after Korea crisis.

Swez (canal Crisis -1956): In fact, Egyptian President Colonel Nasir got Aswaan Dam constructed on the basis of British and American capital then western power were trying to user Nasir in Cold War. But Nasir was not willing to join western block. This was the basic reason behind difference between western powers and Nasir. On some pretext British refused to invest its capital in Aswaan Dam. Nasir took a very radical step by nationalizing Swez Canal in 1956. Nasir gave his own explanation behind this nationlisation. He told that he did so for reasource mobilization in order to get the construction of Aswaan Dam completed. But British and France with Israel invaded Egypt. This resulted into Swez crisis. Its ultimate result was humiliating retreat of British from region of Middle East. At that time US president Isonhower, was busy with elections in America. For his own benefit he took a different stand, he criticized invaders. It was a rare event in history when both the super powers (USA and USSR) voted in UNO jointly against invasion. As this proposal was voted in security council, USA and Russian got a proposal approved in general assembly by two-thirds majority and ultimately invading party had to retreat. This was a great success for UNO.

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