(Sample Material) IAS PRE GS Online Coaching : History of Indian & Indian National Movement - "Ancient Indian History"

Sample Material of Our Online Coaching Programme

Subject: History of Indian & Indian National Movement
Topic: Ancient Indian History

Foreign Account
Literary Sources

Proto Historic Period : Harappan Script was ideographic, but has not deciphered.
On the fortification wall of the recently excavated city Dholavira depiction of Harappan pictographs have been found which is the oldest sinage of the world.

Vedic Literature:

  • Veda means knowledge
  • Vedic literature includes all the four Vedas, Brahmnas, Aryankas and Upanishadas.
  • Rigveda is the earliest Veda
  • Rig means hymns.
  • Rigveda is divided into 10 mandalas.
  • Mandalas are further divided in to Astakas and Suktas.
  • Rigvedas comprises 1028 hymns.
  • Total hymns is all vedas are 20,000.
  • The last 11 hymns are known Balakhilya (second to seventh mandala are known as Family Text) which are considered as the oldest part of Rigveda.
  • Third mandala of Rigveda comprises Gaytri Mantra, composed by Viswamitra.
  • Gaytri Mantra is dedicated to savitur who was deity of Sun family.
  • Fourth Mandala consists of references of agricultural work.
  • Sixth mandala depicts the word Haryupia which has been related with Harappa.
  • Ninth mandala is dedicated to soma.
  • First type Krishna's description has been found in Chandogya Upnishad.
  • Tenth mandala (Purusha Sukta) describes About the four varnas known as Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and sudra.
  • Samanean ‘to Sing’.
  • Except 78 hymns all the other hymns of this Veda have been taken from Rigveda.
  • Yajurveda is an elaborate elucidation of rituals.
  • Krishan-yajurveda comprises description in prose.
  • Atharvveda is related with some non-Aryan traditions like magical charm and spell.
  • Brahman literature is descriptive detail about Sacrament, sacrifices and different rites and rituals.
  • Aitreya and Kausitaki Brahman are related with Rigveda.
  • Satpath Brahmn related with Yajurveda describes about Aryans extention in the Ganget c valley.
  • Rituals related with agriculture have- been also described in it.
  • Aryankas are philosophical in content.
  • Philosophy about the unity of Atma and Parniatma has been described in Upanishadas.
  • Upanishadas are called Vedanta.
  • Total number of Upanishadas is 108. But According to Sankaracharya number of Upanishadas is 16.
  • Katha upnishad describes the story yama and Nachiketa.
  • Upanisbadas mainly revolves around South and Brahma.
  • Mandukopanished of Atharva Veda depicts satyamev Jayte.
  • Rigveda, Samveda and Yayurveda are collectively called Trayee.

Vedang Literature:

  1. Sikha (Phonetics) - Yaska is the first known writer on Sikha.
  2. Kalpa - (Rituals) - There are three Sutras Dharma, Sraut and Grihya.
  • Sulva Sutra describes about geometry
  • Nirukta (Elymology)
  • Chhanda (Metre) - Pingal was the greatest author on Chhanda Shastra.
  • Vyakaran (Grammer) - Panini wrote Astadhyayi, Katyayan Vartika and Patanjali- Mahabhasya.
  • Jyotisha (Astrology) - No particular book on Vedanga Jyotitha is available