(Sample Material) IAS Online Coaching : India & World Geography - "Africa"

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Subject: India & World Geography

Topic: Africa

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Area: 30,221,532 sq. km (20.4% of total area Madagascar and other islands of Africa)

Population : 1.111 billion

Latitude : 37°31'N to 34°52'S Longitude : 25°11'W to 51°24'E

Size : Second largest continent after Asia and nine times the size of India.

Situation : Situated to the south of Europe and south west of Asia. It is bound by the Mediterranean Sea in the north, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and southwest, the Indian Ocean in the east and the Red Sea in the northeast. Africa belongs to all the four hemispheres and bulk of the continent lies in tropics. It is joined to Asia by the narrow isthmus of Suez and separated from Eurasia at three different points (Strait of Gibraltar, Suez Canal and Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb). The only continent which is crossed by Tropic of Cancer, Equator and Tropic of Capricorn.

Africa is called as the “Dark Continent’ because the greater part of its vast interior remained little known to the outside world until the last century.


Important Seas / Ocean Channels around Africa



African Countries Along the Sea

Mediterranean Sea

  • It separates Africa from Europe.

  • Region around are known for its distinct climate.

North of Africa

Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt.

Red Sea

  • It separates Africa from Asia.

North East of Africa

Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea and Djibouti.

Indian Ocean

East of Africa

Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique
and South Africa

Atlantic ocean

West of Africa

Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania,
Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau,
Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, Ivory
Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria,
Cameroon, Equatorial Guniea, Gabon,
Congo, Zaire, Angola, Namibia, South

Mozambique Channel

East of Mozambique

Mozambique (West) and Madagascar

Important Gulfs and Bays



Gulf of Guinea

South of Ivory coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean.

Walvis Bay

West of Namibia, Atlantic Ocean.

Maputo Bay

South East of Mozambique, Indian Ocean.

Important Straits




Strait of Gibraltar

Europe from Africa

Mediterranean Sea with Atlantic Ocean.

Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb

Djibouti (Africa) from Yemen (Asia)

Red Sea with Gulf of Aden.

Coasts of Africa



Grain Coast

Sierra Leone and Liberia


Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast


Gold Coast



Slave Coast

Togo, Benin and Nigeria.



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