(Sample Material) IAS PRE GS Online Coaching : India & World Geography - "Electricity / Power in India"

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Subject: India & World Geography

Topic: Electricity / Power in India

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  • India has an installed power generation capacity of 155,000 MW

  • The total demand for power is expected to cross 950,000 MW by 2030

  • The government plans to add about 78,000 MW of installed generation capacity by 2012

  • Main sources of power in India include thermal power, hydro power and nuclear power

  • Private sector contributes around 13.5% to total power generation

  • The per capita power consumption in India is 612 kWh

  • Only 44% of rural households have access to electricity

  • The Government of India is working towards the objective of ‘Power for ‘All by 2012’.

Power transmission

Transmission of electricity is defined as bulk transfer of power over a long distance at a high voltage, usually 132 kV or more

Transmission in the country is divided into five regional transmission system:

  • Northern region (HQ Delhi): largest in area

  • Norther eastern region (Shilong) : Highest hydro: thermal power ratio (1:1)

  • Eastern region (HQ Bangalore)

  • Southern region (HQ Bangalore)

  • Western region (HQ : Nagpur)

The interconnected transmission system within each region is called the Regional Grid. The eastablishment of a National Grid has been planned

Power transmission is handled by the Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. (PGCIL)

Four of the five Regional Grids now operate as a synchronous grid (western, northern, eastern and norther eastern). The Southern Grid is connected to the sysnchronous grid separately through HVDC links Each Regional Grid functions under a Regional Load Despatch Cenre. Additionally, a National Load Despatch Cenre has been established in New Delhi to coordinate efforts to establish the National Grid

Power distribution

Transmission and distribution (T&D) losses in India reach 33%

Losses include technical losses such as unplanned lines, overloading, and commercial losses such as theft, pilferage etc

The Accelerated Power Development and Reform Programme (APDRP) was initiated in 2001 to bring down T&D Losses below 15%

Power distribution is the responsibility of State Electricity Boards (SEBs)

The Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB) is the second largest power generating utility in India, after the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)

Government Undertaking in power sector

All Entities Function Under the Ministry of Power unless otherwise noted

National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)

The NTPC is the largest power generating utility in India. Its installed generation capacity is around 30,000 MW

It was established in 1975 and is headquartered in New Delhi

It has 18% of national installed capacity but contributes 28% of national power generation

It has 15 coal-based and 7 gas-based power generating plants

The largest coal based plant is the Talcher-Kaniha plant in Angul, Orissa (3000 MW)

The largest gas based plant is the Dadri plant in Uttar Pradesh (817 MW)

The NTPC has forayed into hydro power projects as well. Hydro projects under implementation by the NTPC are

  • Koldam in Himachal Pradesh (800 MW)

  • Loharinag Pala in Uttarakhand (600 MW)

  • Tapovan Vishnugarh in Uttarakhand (520 MW)

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