(Sample Material) IAS Online Coaching : India & World Geography - "Europe"


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Subject: India & World Geography

Topic: Europe

Latitude : 34051'N to 81047'N
Longitude : 24033'W to 69003'E
Population : 60 crores
Area: 1,04,98,000 sq. km.
Size : Second smallest continent in the world in area, after America.
Situation : Europe is situated between Ural Mountains in the east and the Atlantic Ocean in the west, in the west of Asia, and north of Africa. To the north of Europe lies Arctic Ocean, to the south lies the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Caucasus Mountains and to the East Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea.
Europe and Asia as one common landmass, is known as ‘Eurasia’.


¨Greatest extent, North-South : 4300 km
▪Greatest extent, East-West : 5600 km

Principal Countries

Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Vatican City State, Yugoslavia.

Countries of Scandinavia
Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland are collectively known as Scandinavia.


Important Gulfs and Bays



Part of Sea or Ocean

Gulf of Riga

 Estonia and Latvia

 Baltic Sea.

Gulf of Finland

 Finland and Estonia

 Baltic Sea.

Gulf of Bothnia

 Sweden and Finland

 Baltic Sea.

English Channel

 Britain and Spain

 Atlantic Ocean.

Bay of Biscay

 France and Spain

 Atlanic Ocean.

Gulf of Lions

 Lies to the south of France

 Mediterranean Sea.


Important Seas




Mediterranean Sea

 Separates Europe from Africa, Strait of Gibraltar connects it to the Atlantic

Tiber (Italy) (France) Ebro (Spain)

White Sea

 North of Russia, Arctic Ocean

Mezen, N. Divina, andOnega.

Baltic Sea

 Atlantic Ocean

Vistula and Oder.

North Sea 

• Wide continental shelves of North Sea, called as Dogger Bank is one of the most productive regions for fishing in the world.
• North sea is connected to the Baltic Sea through Kiel Canal.

 East of the United Kingdom, Atlantic Ocean

Elbe and Weser (Germany) and Rhine (Netherland)

Irish Sea

 Lies between Great Britain and
Ireland, Atlantic Ocean.


Adriatic Sea

 North east of Italy, Mediterranean Sea.

Po (Italy.)

Ionian Sea

 Lies between Greece and Italy,
Mediterranean Sea.


Balck Sea

 Separates Europe from Asia

Dnepr, Dnster, Danube.

Sea of Azov

 South east of Ukraine, North of
Black Sea


Sea of Marmara

 South westof Black Sea.

Connects Black Sea and
Aegean Sea

Aegean Sea

 Lies between Greece and Anatolia Peninsula (Turkey), Mediterranean Sea.


Important Straits




Strait of Gibraltar
(Known as ‘Key to the Mediterranean’).

Europe and Africa

Mediterranean Sea with Atlantic Ocean.

Strait of Bonifacio

Sardina islands. (Italy) and Corsica (France)

Tyrhenian Sea with Mediterranean Sea.

Strait of Messina

Sicily and Peninsular Italy

Tyrhenian Sea with Mediterranean Sea.

Strait of Otranto

 Italy and Balkan Peninsula

Adriatic Sea with Ionian Sea.

Bosporus Strait

Istanbul and Anatolia
Peninsula (Turkey)

 Black Sea with Sea of Marmara.

Strait of Kerch

Kerch (Ukraine) and Russia

Sea of Azov with Black Sea.

Dardanelles Strait

Balkan Peninsula and Antolia

Sea of Marmara with Aegean Sea.

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