(Sample Material) IAS PRE GS Online Coaching : General Science - "Cell"

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Subject: General Science

Topic: Cell

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What is Cell?

All living organisms on earth are divided in pieces called cells. Cells are small compartments that hold all of the biolo-gical equipments necessary to keep organisms. Cells carry out all the basic functions of life: growth, metabolism and reproduction.

There are some organisms like amoeba consists of a single cell. This single cell increase in size and when it attains a certain size, it divides into two separates individuals. In case of multi cellular organisms, the cell also divides into two parts, but the two parts remaining joined this process is repeated crore of times so that body mass is built up. In this process some cells become specialized to perform specific functions but other retains their capacity for cell division throughout life.

Who Gave the Cell Theory?

The term cell was coined by Robert Hooke in 1665. In 1838 Matthias Schleiden, German botanist proposed the idea that all plants consists of cells. In 1839, The Eodor Schwann a German zoologist asserted that all plant and animals are made up of cells. This finding forms the basis of cell theory.

Components of Cell?

In the living organisms there are two types of cellular organizations. If we look at very simple organisms like bacteria and blue-green algae, We will discover cells that have no defined nucleus, these are prokaryotes cells. The cells which have definite nucleus are known as eukaryote. But the things which both have in common is that there are compartments surrounded by some type of membranes. These are called cell membranes.

Cell membranes : It is like a plastic bag with some tiny holes that bag holds all of the cell pieces and fluids inside the cell and keeps foreign particles outside the cell. The holes are there to let some things move in and out of the cell. Compounds called proteins and phospholipids make up most of the cell membranes. the phospholipids make the basic bag. The proteins are found around the holes and help move molecules in and out of the cell. Substances like Co2 and O2 can move across the cell membranes by a process called diffusion. Diffusion is a process of movements of substance from a region of high concentration to a region where its concentration is low. Water also obeys the law of diffusion. The movement of water molecules is called osmosis.

Cytoplasm : It is the fluid that fills a cell. Scientists used to call the fluid proto plasm.cytoplasm contain many specialized cell called organ cells. Each of these organ cells performs a specific function for the cell.