Sample Material of Our Online Coaching Programme
Topic: President of India
India adopted the Westminster model of democracy where the
Parliament is supreme and the political executive composed of the Union Council
of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister is the head of the Government- de
facto head. President is the lead of State and is the nominal head- counterpart
of the British monarch- de jure head.
President, as the Head of the State, symbolises the nation.
In some democratic systems, the head of the State is also the head of the
government and, therefore, he is also the head of the political executive. The
US Presidency represents this form. In Britain, the monarch is the symbolic
head, representing - the British nation. The powers of the Government are vested
in the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister. The President of India is the first
citizen and represents the Indian nation and does not, therefore, belong to any
particular political party. He is largely ceremonial in his status.
Article 52 states that there shall be a President of India.
According to Art. 53, the executive powers of the Union shall be
vested in the President.
Ques. 1 : Election of the President has became more political
in nature rather than constitutional. Examine?
Ans. Constituent Assembly debated whether the President
should be directly or indirectly elected. Some preferred direct election of the
President. The suggestion was rejected on the following grounds
If President of India is elected directly by people, it will be a partisan
election- the President will represent a particular political party which denies
the office universal character. He may not work impartially
Secondly, a directly elected Chief Executive will insist on enjoying real powers
and not satisfied with a ceremonial role and thus clash with the council of
ministers, particularly if the Presidency and the Council of Ministers come from
A middle course was chosen by the framers of the Indian
Constitution by having an electoral college with elected representatives from
parliament and the state assemblies.
Article 54 of the constitution says:
The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral
college consisting of-
The elected members of both Houses of Parliament and
The elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the
States (including National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union
Territory of Puduchery after the Constitution 70th amendment Act, 1992).
In India, no special electoral college is elected, as in the
case of America (in the USA, members of electoral college are elected by the
people.) In India the electoral college is made up of the elected MPs and
elected MLAs of all states and the two UTs of NCT of Delhi and Puduchery.
Election of the President of India is by the system of proportional
representation by means of single transferable vote as provided by Article 55(3)
of the Constitution.
The nominated members of Parliament and legislative
assemblies have no right to vote in the election. Similarly, the members of the
Legislative Councils of the State Legislatures have also been excluded from the