Union Public Service Commission
SYLLABI FOR THE EXAMINATION
PAPER - I
History and Problems of Philosophy:
1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and
Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
2 . Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body
Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and
Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time;
Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of
5. Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of
Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture
Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
7. Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics;
Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
8. Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private
9. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Psychologism.
10. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Choice, Responsibility and Authentic
Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.
11. Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and
12. Cârvâka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.
1 3 . Jainism: Theory of Real i ty; Saptabhaòginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
15. Nyâya- Vaiúesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of
Pramâna; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of
Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
16. Sâmkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation
17. Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
18. Mimâmsâ: Theory of Knowledge
19. Schools of Vedânta: Brahman; Îúvara; Âtman; Jiva; Jagat; Mâyâ; Avidyâ;
Adhyâsa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda 20. Aurobindo: Evolution,
Involution; Integral Yoga.
PAPER – II
1. Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
3. Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
4. Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
6. Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
7. Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital P u n -
8. Development and Social Progress.
9. Gender Discrimination: Female Empowernment.
10. Caste Discr iminat ion: Gandhi and Ambedkar
Philosophy of Religion:
1. Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and
2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
3. Problem of Evil.
4. Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
5. Reason, Revelation and Faith.
6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
7. Religion without God.
8. Religion and Morality.
9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
10. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and