(Syllabus) Part - A Preliminary Examination - Syllabus (Commerce)

( UPSC Syllabus )
Part A - Preliminary Examination - Optional Subjects
Examination Syllabus - Subject : Commerce

Part-I (Accounting and Auditing)


  • Nature, Scope and Objectives of Accounting-Accounting as an Information System-Users of Accounting Information.

  • Generally Accepted Principles of Accounting-The Accounting Equation-Accrual Concept-Other concepts and conventions, Distinction between capital and revenue expenditure. Accounting Standards and their application-Accounting standards relating to fixed assets, depreciation, inventory, recognition of revenue.

  • Final Accounts of Sole Proprietors, Partnership Firms and Limited Companies-Statutory Provisions -Reserves, Provisions and Funds.

  • Final Accounts of non profit organisation.

  • Accounting problems related to admission and retirement of a partner and dissolution of a firm.

  • Accounting for Shares and Debentures- Accounting Treatment of Convertible Debentures.

  • Analysis and Interpretation of Financial Statements Ratio analysis and interpretation. Ratios relation to short term liquidity, long term solvency and profitability-Importance of the rate of return on investment (ROI) in evaluating the overall performance of a business entity-Cash-flow Statement and Statement of Source and Application of Funds-Societal obligations of Accounting.


  • Nature, objectives and basic principles of auditing.

  • Techniques of Auditing-physical verification, examination of documents and vouching, direct confirmation, analytical review.

  • Planning an audit, audit programmes, working papers, audit process.

  • Evaluation of internal controls.

  • Test checking and sampling.

  • Broad outlines of company audit.

  • Audit of non-corporate enterprises.

  • Internal and management audit.

Part-II (Business Organisation)

Distinctive features of different forms of business organisation.

    Sole Proprietor

  • Partnerships-characteristics, Registration, Partnership deed, Rights and duties, Retirement, Dissolution.

  • Joint Stock Company-Concept, characteristics, types.

  • Cooperative and State ownership forms of organizations.

  • Types of securities and methods of their issue.

  • Economic functions of the capital market, stock exchanges, Mutual Funds. Control and regulation of capital market.

  • Business combinations; control of Monopolies. Problems of modernisation of industrial enterprises. Social Responsibility of business.

  • Foreign Trade-Procedure and financing of import and export trade. Incentives for export promotion. Financing of foreign trade.

  • Insurance-Principles and practice of Life, Fire, Marine and General Insurance.


  • Management functions-Planning-strategies, Organising-levels of authority Staffing, Line function and staff function, Leadership, Communication, Motivation, Directing-Principles, Strategies.

  • Coordination-Concept, types, methods.

  • Control-principles, performance standards, corrective action. Salary and wage administration-Job evaluation.

  • Organisation Structure-Centralization and decentralization-Delegation of authority-span of control-Management by Objectives and Management by Exception.

  • Management of change; Crisis Management.

  • Office Management-scope and principles; systems and routines; handling of records- modern aids to Office management; office equipment and machines; Automation and Personal computers.

  • Impact of Organisation and Methods (O & M)

    Company Law

  • Joint stock companies-incorporation; documents and formalities-Doctrine of indoor management and constructive notice.

  • Duties and powers of the board of directors of a company.

  • Accounts and Audit of Companies.

  • Company Secretary-role and functions-qualifications for appointment.

Courtesy : UPSC