(Syllabus) Part - A Preliminary Examination - Syllabus (Geography)

( UPSC Syllabus )
Part A - Preliminary Examination - Optional Subjects
Examination Syllabus - Subject : Geography

    Section-A (Physical Georgraphy)

  • Geomorphology
    Origin of the earth; Geological Time Scale; Interior of the earth; Types and characteristics of rocks; Folding and Faulting; Volcanoes; Earthquakes; Weathering; Landforms caused by fluvial, aeolian and glacial actions.

  • Climatology
    Structure and composition of atmosphere; Temperature; Pressure belts and Wind systems; Clouds and rainfall types; Cyclones and anti-cyclones; Major climatic types.

  • Oceanography
    Ocean relief; Temperature; Salinity; Ocean deposits; Ocean currents, El Nino and La Nino; Waves and tides.

  • Biogeography
    Origin and types of soils; Major biomes of the world; Ecosystem and food chain; Environmental degradation and conservation.

    Section-B (Human Geography)

  • Man and Environment Relationship
    Growth and development of Human Geography; Concepts of Determinism and Possibilism.

  • Population
    Races of mankind and tribes; growth and distribution of world population; migration; population problems of developed and developing countries.

  • Economic Activities
    Food gathering and hunting; pastoral herding; fishing and forestry; Types of agriculture-shifting, subsistence, commercial and plantation; Mining, Power; Manufacturing -locational factors of textile, iron and steel, sugar and fertilizer industries; Tertiary activities-trade, transport, communication and services.

  • Settlements
    Origin, types and patterns of rural settlements; Processes of urbanisation; morphology and functional classification of towns; million-cities and mega-cities.

    Section-C (Geography of the World)

  • Major Natural Regions : Characteristics, economic base and human adaptation.

  • Regional Geography of Developed Countries : Canada, U.S.A., Western Europe, Russia, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.

  • Regional Geography of Developing Countries : S.E. Asia, S.W. Asia, China, Southern Africa and Brazil.

  • Regional Geography of South Asia.

    Section-D (Geography of India)

  • Physical Setting
    Landforms, drainage, climate, soils and natural vegetation.

  • Economic Base
    Minerals & energy resources, aquatic resources, forest resources; irrigation, agriculture and industries; trade and commerce.

  • Population
    Growth, distribution and density; demographic characteristics.

  • Environmental problems, developmental issues and regional planning.

    Section-E (Geographical Thought)

  • Ancient Period : Contributions of Indians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs.

  • Pre-Modern Period : Contribution of Verenius, Kant, Humboldt and Ritter.
  • Modern Period : Dichotomy of determinism and possibilism; contributions of Ratzel, Semple, Huntington and La Blache.
  • Recent Period : Quantitive Revolution; Radicalism, Behaviouralism and Humanism.
    Section-F (Techniques of Geographical Analysis)
  • Maps : Scale and types, uses.
  • Diagrams : Types and uses
  • Projections : Types, characteristics and uses.
  • Remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) : Aerial photographs and imagery, GIS.

Courtesy : UPSC


any book for GS

which sub shuld i choose i have done BE in ECE thr r no subject from BE


i am a student of science but i want to choose another subject ..please suggest me any other subject.... thank you .

i am doing b-tech 3rd year....... i have intersted in history.. i am unable to take decision regarding other optional... pls provide me information regarding the depth of optionals geography and indian polity.....