The Gist of Yojana: February 2017

The Gist of Yojana: February 2017

Gist of The Yojana

Strengthening the S&T Roadmap

The Department of Science and Technology, Government of India serves as the nodal agency for all government led initiatives that create and strengthen the science and technology landscape in our country. The specific mandate is to advance science and technology pursuits and develop related human and institutional resources to foster excellence in these fields. The DST accordingly develops policies and implements programmes to serve this important mandate that also delivers science and technology based societal benefits. These transformational changes are enabled through development models, stakeholder engagement, internal connectivity of programmes, and coordination with several other departments within our country and institutions outside through bilateral and multilateral framer works.

The collaboration in Impacting Research Innovation and Technology (IMPRINT) project entails DST's partnership with the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) to address such major societal and developmental needs as healthcare, information and communication technology, energy, sustainable habitat, nano technology, water resources and river systems, advanced materials, security and defence, and environment and climate change related mitigation and adaptation.

Attracting Women to Science: This is achieved through a programme titled KIRAN (Knowledge Involvement in. Research Advancement through' Nurturing) launched in 2014. This enables gender parity in science through nurturing research careers of women scientists. The programme provides opportunities to women scientists who had a break in their career primarily due to family responsibilities. The programme encourages them to take up research and emerge as an entrepreneur if they so choose to.

Social benefits delivered: These cover a Wide variety of sectors including energy benefits, wealth from waste and optimal extraction and sustainable management of bio resources. Three such examples are presented in the following.

Surya Jyoti lights up homes of poor: In order to capture daylight and concentrate the same inside dark living spaces, a low cost device named Surya Jyoti has been developed and tested. Surya Jyoti is basically a Micro Solar Dome which has a transparent semi- spherical upper dome made of acrylic material that captures sunlight. The light passes through a sun-tube of a thin layer of highly reflective coating on the inner wall of the passage. During daytime, illumination through Surya Jyoti goes upto, an equivalent of 15-watt LED lamp.

Indigenous technology for rural industrialization: For inclusive development of the country, sustainable industrial activities using local resources in the rural areas are extremely important. DST accordingly endeavours to help rural populations through the application of science and technology. One such initiative of the department has culminated in a rural-industry complex in a plot of wasteland at Malunga, a village in Jodhpur district of Rajasthan. Integration of technology in this industry complex has been done in such a manner that it satisfies the local needs by utilization of local resources. It offers sustainable and inclusive development by converting waste to wealth.

Going Global through Mega Projects: The most important guiding principle for this approach is to leverage India's excellence for mutually reinforcing benefits for high end pursuits on frontiers. These in turn enhance investigation and learning opportunities along with economic benefits through enhanced industry activities.

Thirty Meter Telescope: India's Participation in Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA was approved by the Government at a total cost of Rs.1299.8 crores in September 2014. The cost would be met by DST and the Department of Atomic Energy. The other countries participating in the project are USA, Canada, China and Japan. India will contribute towards the construction phase, both in cash and kind. India will benefit scientifically and technologically from participation in this project.

Associate Membership of CERN: The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is the , world's largest nuclear and particle physics laboratory, where scientists and engineers across the globe are probing the fundamental structure of the Universe. Indian scientists have been actively participating and collaborating at CERN on all aspects of science, engineering and computing through joint funding provided by Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and Department of Science and Technology (DST). The CERN Council admitted India as Associate Member of CERN in Sept. 2016. As an Associate Member of CERN, India will be a part of the huge scientific and technological endeavor.

Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO): India has agreed in-principle to set up an advanced gravitational-wave (GW) observatory in the country; that will be the third such observatory across the world. This will be a nationally coordinated project and three lead Indian institutions, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune, Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar and Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore will steer this project in collaboration with LIGO laboratories of California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), USA.

Devasthal Optical Telescope: A state-of-the-art world class 3.6 meter Devasthal Optical Telescope was remotely activated jointly by the Prime Minister of India and Prime Minister of Belgium on March 31, 2016. The telescope is installed at Devasthal near Nainital. It is the largest steerable imaging telescope in Asia; a result of scientific collaboration between scientists from Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital, an autonomous institution of DST, and Belgian scientists. The telescope will contribute to observations for frontline scientific research in astronomy and astrophysics.

Enhance quality and quantity of R&D: The objective is to position India amongst the top 5 countries in scientific research by augmenting the R&D infrastructure, enhance number of active scientists and quality/relevance/impact of research to reverse braindrain for braingain for societal and industrial development and attract youth to study and pursue career in (science and technology. The DST will also intensify industry-academia R&D partnerships, to find solutions to national challenges pertaining to energy, water, health, environment, climate and cyber security. There will be new steps to leverage the best of international S&T knowledge and infrastructure by cooperating in the selected areas to gain global competitiveness and support S&T capacity building in least developed countries.

Create a Robust S&T Led Innovation and Start-up Ecosystem: DST has developed a national initiative (National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing Innovations- NIDHI) to seamlessly cover the entire innovation chain right from scouting and mentoring to up-scaling the start ups. This will also widen the base of the innovation pyramid by promoting the culture of innovation among students and rural communities with a special emphasis on inclusion, relevance, frugality and grassroot applications.

Surya Jyoti

Surya Jyoti (Photo-Voltaic Integrated Micro Solar Dome) is a low cost and energy efficient lamp useful particularly for urban slum or rural areas which don’t get electricity supply.

The lamp factions by capturing day light ‘and concentrating and saving it inside which can be used during the night time. The device is leak proof, and can work up to four hours continuously after sunset. This device has been developed by the Department of Science & Technology as a part of their Green Energy initiatives.

Surya Jyoti lamps will be used by the 10 million off-grid households in Voltaic Integrated Micro Solar Dome (MSD) urban and rural spaces that do not have reliable access to electricity. As it can give an illumination equivalent of a 60W incandescent lamp, it will lead to a saving of 1750 million units of energy. It would also lead to an Emission Reduction of about 12.5 million ton of CO2.

These Surya Jyoti lamps can operate in three modes, day light without iny electricity, night time with solar PV and night time with conventional grid after 17 hours of operation. The manufacturing process of the device is labour intensive and is expected to generate huge job opportunities. A monthly production of 6,000 units is expected by December, 2016 which is can go up to 20,000 by March, 2017.

1000 Micro Solar domes are now working in the slums of Delhi, Kolkata, Agartala, Guwahati, Bhopal and Bengaluru. The PV integrated lamps costs about Rs. 1200 and Non-PV integrated lamps cost about Rs. 500,that will be further reduced to Rs. 900 and Rs. 400 respectively, after the scaling up of the manufacturing process. The device has been included as a product for off grid solar lighting applications and is eligible to be subsidised under various rural and urban government schemes.

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