The Gist of Yojana: January 2016
Transport Infrastructure: Way Forward
The trend in transport demand profile in India has been characterised by an
increasing share of road transport and increasing share of personalised
transport (especially the motorised two wheeler). While the road infrastructure
based facilitation of road transport, especially in the 2000-2007 period (NHDP
and PMGSY), would have most certainly contributed to the jump in GDP growth, the
impact on energy and environment and
safety would be far from desirable. It is important to reverse the trend of
increasing market share of road and personalised transport towards more
environment friendly transport modes like rail and water.
Transport demand can at the first level, be categorised into international
and domestic movement (including for export/import). Ports and airports are the
gateways for the export/import traffic. We first examine domestic movement and
At the next level, the transport demand can be categorised into freight and
passenger. There are no clear estimates on the relative value, effort or
environmental impact of the two domains. However, examining the data of Indian
Railways from a revenue perspective, about 70 per cent of the economic value is
generated from freight. Similarly, 80 per cent or interregional road movement
would be accounted for by freight vehicles as per toll booth information.
The National Transport Development Policy Committee (NTDPC) has tried to
estimate the overall freight traffic until
2031-32, using a growth rate of 1.2 times the GDP growth rate. This
multiplier is questionable, both based on past traffic growth, which has not
exceeded the GDP’ growth rate, and given that India has about 60 per cent
Increasing rail share would not come easy unlessthe important aspects of
customer orientation and capacity enhancement are addressed. The right direction
tor this would be to increase separation between infrastructure and services,
with services coming under structures that can be more market oriented,
including, if need be, through competition and privatization.
Customer orientation was attempted in opening up container services to the
private sector. The experience has not been as anticipated. There are lessons to
be learnt in terms of clearly defining the roles of the authority who is also
the infrastructure provider and the service provider. Appropriate oversight
mechanisms in the form of a commercial regulator would be required. There are
huge opportunities to improve customer orientation in the passenger domain.
Capacity enhancements in rail need to come both from additional modernized
infrastructure, like the dedicated freight corridors, as well as extracting
more. from the existing network. There is a lot of opportunity in the second
approach through improved signaling and infrastructure to debottleneck
In the context of passenger, increasing speeds by a quantum jump for
interregional movement is essential. While increasing speeds on the existing
right of way can be an option, the benefits derived would not be substantial
since it would be under mixed traffic conditions. Dedicate high speed corridors
would be the way to go. Apart from being a game changer in terms of
connectivity, this would also enable significant technology spin-offs.
The PPP route of road development should continue to be emphasized with
appropriate viability gap funding, and land acquisition and environmental
clearances, being provided by the government. In terms of financing may help if
land acquisition costs are with the government.
The trucking sector nee.ds due support by the biggest concern of frontline
‘corruption’ arid harassment by various regulatory authorities being addressed.
Other commercial deterrents like driver availability, roadside facilities, dual
licensing of power ‘cabs and trailers, and electronic tolling, need immediate
India’s record on road safety is amongst the poorest in the world. Better
road engineering and furniture, and driver training and licensing, should be
emphasised. This should be complemented by roadside support for emergency
assistance. While there is sensitivity on these services, implementation could
be better. The recent initiative to have tree plantations on the land adjacent
to highways need caution. As per many international studies, trees are the
biggest killers during accidents. This is specially significant. when we are
trying to increase the average speeds on the roads.
From an environmental perspective, there is opportunity to increase the share
of coastal transport, given India’s long coastline. However, issues of
hinterland connectivity, cabotage, customs, taxation and duties, and berth
availability in the larger ports, have held back the usage of this mode. There
have been recent initiatives at easing the policy regime and encouraging coastal
transportation. The potential shippers and service providers would need greater
consistency in policy, with even subsidy based incentivisation in the early
years to build the market.
Aviation has been growing reasonably, with the ‘open skies’ policy for the
airlines. Non AAI (including private) involvement in the airports has been
stopped after six airports. There are a: large number of airports which are not
profit making. There could be significant potential in increasing their revenues
through non aeronautical sources, with appropriate market orientation. Whether
AAI should play the role of actually being involved in development and delivery
or just oversight to bring in commercial players is an important question. In
any case, an essential air services fund to promote smaller aircrafts would be
Aviation needs attention on improved safety at world class levels. Our safety
standards and the regulation behind them have come in for international notice
as being inadequate. A related issue is whether the air navigation services
should be separated from airport management of the AAI, not only to provide
focus, but also to ensure that there is no conflict of interest between
navigation and airport management which has players other than AAI.
Transport infrastructure development needs a good regulatory framework. Such
regulation must address licensing, environmental impact, safety, security,
pricing, service levels and dispute resolution. If in any domain, competition is
significant, then pricing and service levels would not need regulation. Not all
modes have the appropriate regulatory framework.
Given the above, I would like to conclude that the directions for transport
infrastructure development should be driven by speed with sustainability,
safety, security, and stresslessness. I would call this the five ‘S’s of
transport infrastructure development.