(GIST OF YOJANA) Public Administration for Social Change
Public Administration for Social Change
- Governance became an inevitable evolution in successful governance in the modem era. As a coordinator and service provider, the Governments are required to embrace Information and Communication Technology to meet the demands of their citizens. ‘Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent’ (SMART) Governance became the order of the day to build effective and efficient governance.
- India being the largest democracy in the world, started adopting e-governance in the 1970s and adopted the change quickly, and progressed towards good governance policy at a rapid speed.
- The e-governance aims to make the interaction between government and citizens (G2C), government and business enterprises (G2B), and inter-agency relationships (G2G) convenient, transparent, friendly, effective, and cost-effective.
- According to the ‘Gartner e-Governance Maturity Model’, there are four phases of e-governance, i.e.
Phase I Information;
Phase II Interaction;
- E-governance helps a democratic country to stand according to the expectations of the public in the modem era. Further, the concept of the Gartner c-governance Maturity Model was enhanced by the UN e-Governance Survey 2008 by adding Phase V i.e., Connected Government.
- In Phase-V, the Governments shall transform themselves into a connecting platform that responds to the needs of its citizens by developing an integrated back-office infrastructure.
- Though the Government of India established various endeavors to successfully implement the e-Governance initiative, the complexities exist due to the interoperability among central, state, district, and local governments.
- According to the UN E-government Survey 2020 of the UN Department of Social and Economic Affairs (UNDESA), India was placed 100th in the E-Governance Development Index.
National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)
- The following strategy, approach & methodology is adopted for successful implementation of the NeGP:
- Common Support Infrastructures such as SWANs, SDCs, CSCs, and Electronic Service Delivery Gateways.
- Suitable governance systems development to monitor and coordinate the implementation of NeGP.
- Centralised Initiative, Decentralized Implementation
- Public-Private Partnership
- Integrative elements
- Programme approach at the National and State levels
- Facilitatory role of DIT in implementation of NeGP by various Ministries and State Governments by providing technical assistance
- Ownership of Ministries over Mission Mode Projects (MMPs)
Mission Mode Projects:
- NeGP comprises 31 Mission Mode Projects encompassing 11 central MMPs, 13 State MMPs, 7 integrated MMPs, and 8 components.
- MMPs focus on one aspect of governance with clearly defined objectives, scopes, implementation timelines, and milestones with measurable outcomes and service levels.
- Central MMPs – Banking Central Excise & Customs Income Tax; Insurance; MCA21 Passport; Immigration, Visa & Foreigners Registration & Tracking; Pension; e-office; Posts and UID.
- State MMPs - Agriculture; Commercial Taxes; e-District; Employment Exchange; Land Records (NLRMP); Municipalities, e-Panchayats; Police (CCNTS), Road Transport; Treasuries Computerisation; PDS; Education and Health.
- Integrated MMPs - CSC; e-Biz; e-Courts, e-Procurement; EDI for eTrade; National e-governance Service Delivery Gateway; and India Portal.
Digital India Initiative
- The Digital India Initiative was launched in the year 2015 to bridge the gap between urban and rural areas by promoting investment in digital infrastructure, fostering digital literacy, and expanding online services provision. The vision of the Digital India programme is to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy by focusing on the following key vision areas:
- Digital infrastructure as a core utility to every citizen.
- Governance & Services on demand.
- Digital empowerment of citizens.
- Digital India is designed as an umbrella programme that covers multiple Government Ministries and Departments. The overall coordination of the Digital India Programme is done by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DietY) with a focus on nine pillars of growth areas, i.e., Broadband Highways; Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity; Public Internet Access Programme; e-Governance: Reforming Government through Technology; e-Kranti - Electronic Delivery of Services; Information for All; Electronics Manufacturing; IT for Jobs and Early Harvest Programmes. Each thrust area further has subcomponents and cuts across multiple Ministries and Departments.
- NeGD is conducting the Chief Information Officers (CIO): e-governance Leadership programme targeting policy and programme-level officers involved in e-governance projects/initiatives in Center & State ministries and departments.
- This programme has been set up to create e-governance champions within line ministries to accelerate the implementation of e-governance initiatives across all levels of government.
- National e-Governance Services Delivery Assessment (NeSDA)
- NeSDA was launched to promote the participation of various departments and ministries at State and Central level to adopt the e-Government framework in day-to-day functioning, to encourage e-participation of citizens and businesses in policymaking, to help India in achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to provide efficient public service delivery to all levels of population in the country by reducing the digital divide, to develop innovative and improved public service delivery by developing ICT infrastructure capacity building and to develop a simple single entry point for all e-services at every level of governance i.e., from central to local self-governance.
- The parameters of assessing under NeSDA are accessibility, ease of use, end service delivery, integrated service delivery, content availability, information security & privacy, and status and request tracking.