Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 23
Studies of the factors governing reading development in young children have
achieved a remarkable degree of consensus over the past two decades. The
consensus concerns the causal role of ‘phonological skills’ in young children’s
reading progress. Children who have good phonological skills, or good
‘phonological awareness’ become good readers and good spellers. Children with
poor phonological skills progress more poorly. In particular, those who have a
specific phonological deficit are likely to be classified as dyslexic by the
time they are 9 or 10 years old.
Phonological skills in young children can be measured at a number of different
levels. The term phonological awareness is a global one, and refers to a deficit
in recognising smaller units of sound within spoken words. Development work has
shown that this deficit can be at the level of syllables, of onsets and rimes,
or phonemes. For example, a 4-year old child might have difficulty in
recognising that a word like valentine has three syllables, suggesting a lack of
syllabic awareness. A five-year-old might have difficulty in recognising that
the odd word out in the set of words fan, cat, hat, mat is fan. This task
required an awareness of the sub-syllabic units of the onset and the rime. The
onset corresponds to any initial consonants in a syllable and the rime
corresponds to the vowel and to any following consonants. Rimes correspond to
rhyme in single-syllable words, and so the rime in fan differs from the rime in
cat, hat and mat. In longer words, rime and rhyme may differ. The onsets in
valentine are /v/ and /t/ and the rimes correspond to the spelling patterns
‘al’, ‘en’ and ‘me’.
A six-year-old might have difficulty in recognising that plea and pray begin
with the same initial sound. This is a phonemic judgement. Although the initial
phoneme /p/ is shared between the two words, in plea it is part of the onset
‘pl’ and in pray it is part of the onset ‘pr’. Until children can segment the
onset (or the rime), such phonemic judgements are difficult for them to make. In
fact, a recent survey of different developmental studies has shown that the
different levels of phonological awareness appear to emerge sequentially. The
awareness of syllables, onsets, and rimes appears to merge at around the ages of
3 and 4, long before most children go to school. The awareness of phonemes, on
the other hand, usually emerges at around the age of 5 or 6, when children have
been taught to read for about a year. An awareness of onsets and rimes thus
appears to be a precursor of reading, whereas an awareness of phonemes at every
serial position in a word only appears to develop as reading is taught. The
onset-rime and phonemic levels of phonological structure, however, are not
distinct. Many onsets in English are single phonemes, and so are some rimes
(e.g. sea, go, zoo).
The early availability of onsets and rimes is supported by studies that have
compared the development of phonological awareness of onsets, rimes, and
phonemes in the same subjects using the same phonological awareness tasks. For
example, a study by Treiman and Zudowski used a same/different judgement task
based on the beginning or the end sounds of words. In the beginning-sound task,
the words either began with the same onset, as in plea and plank, or shared only
the initial phoneme, as in plea and pray.
In the end-sound task, the words either shared the entire rime, as in spit and
wit, or shared only the final phoneme, as in rat and wit. Treiman and Zudowski
showed that four-and five-year-old children found the onset-rime version of the
same/different task significantly easier than the version based on phonemes.
Only the six-year-olds, who had been learning to read for about a year, were
able to perform both versions of the tasks with an equal level of success.
1. According to the passage which of the following statements is true?
(a) A mono-syllabic word can have only one onset
(b) A mono-syllabic word can have only one rhyme but more than one rime
(c) A mono-syllabic word can have only one phoneme
(d) All of the above
2. Which of the following is likely to emerge last in the cognitive
development of a child?
3. A phonological deficit in which of the following is likely to be
classified as dyslexia?
(a) Onset judgement
(b) Rime judgement
(c) Phonemic judgement
(d) Anyone or more of the above
4. The Treiman and Zudowski experiment found evidence to support which of
the following conclusions?
(a) At age six reading instruction helps children perform both the
same/different judgement tasks
(b) The development of onset-rime awareness precedes the development of an
awareness of phonemes .
(c) At age four to five children find onset -rime version of the same/different
task significantly easier
(d) The development of onset-rime awareness is a necessary and sufficient
condition for the development of an awareness of phonemes
The lithosphere or outer shell of the earth is made up of about a dozen rigid
plates that move with respect to one another. New lithosphere is created at
mid-ocean ridges by the upwelling and cooling of magma from the earth’s’
interior. Since new lithosphere is continuously being created and the earth is
not expanding to any appreciable extent, the question arises: What happens to
the “old” lithosphere?
The answer came in the late. 1960s as the last major link in the theory of
sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics that has revolutionised our
understanding of tectonic processes, or structural deformation in the earth and
ha: provided a unifying theme for many diverse observations, the earth sciences.
The old lithosphere is subducted, or pushed down, into the earth’s mantle the
thick shell of. red-hot rock beneath the earth’s thin, cooler crust and abo.ve
its metallic(partly melted) core. As the formerly rigid plate descends, it
slowly heats up and over period of millions of years, it is absorbed into the
general circulation of the earth’s mantle.
The subduction of the lithosphere is perhaps the most significant phenomenon in
global tectonics. Subduction no only explains what happens to old lithosphere
but also accounts for many of the geologic processes that shape the earth’s
surface. Most of the’ world’s volcanoes anti earthquakes are associated with
descending lithospheric plates. The prominent island arcs-chains of islands such
a the Aleutians, the Kuriles, the Marianas, and the islands (Japan-are surface
expressions of the subduction process The deepest trenches of the world’s
oceans, including the Java and Tonga trenches and all others associated wit
island arcs, mark the seaward boundary of subduction zones. Major mountain
belts, such as the Andes and the Himalayas, have resulted from the convergence
an subduction of lithospheric plates.
To understand the subduction process, it is necessary to look at the thermal
regime of the earth. The temperature within the earth at first increase rapidly
with depth reaching about 1,200 degrees Celsius at a depth of 100 kilometres.
Then they increase more gradually approaching 2,000 degrees C at about 500
kilometres. The minerals in peridolite, the major constituent of the upper
mantle, start to melt at about 1,200 C or typically at a depth of 100 kilometres.
Under the oceans, the upper mantle fairly soft and may contain some molten
material at depth as shallow as 80 kilometres. The soft region of the mantle
over which the rigid lithospheric plate normally moves, is the asthenosphere. It
appears that in certain areas, convection currents in the asthenosphere may
drive the plates and that in other regions, the plate motions may drive the
Several factors contribute to the heating of the lithosphere as it descends into
First, heat simply flows into the cooler lithosphere from the surrounding warmer
mantle. Since the conductivity of the rock increases with temperature, the
conductive heating becomes mc efficient with increasing depth.
Second, as the lithospheric slab descends, it is subjected to increasing
pressure, which introduces heat of compression.
Third, the slab is heated the radioactive decay of uranium, thorium and
potassium which are present in the earth’s crust and add heat at constant rate
to the descending material.
Fourth, heat provided by the energy released when the minerals in t lithosphere
change to denser phases, or more compact crystal structures, as they are
subjected to higher pressure during descent.
Finally, heat is generated by friction, shear stresses and the dissipation of
viscous motions at boundaries between the moving lithospheric plate and 1
surrounding mantle. Among all these sources, the first a fourth contribute the
most toward the heating of 1 descending lithosphere.
5. According to the passage, which of the following statements is/are true
of the earth’s mantle?
I. It is in a state of flux.
II. Its temperature far exceeds that of the lithosphere.
III. It eventually incorporates the subducted lithosphere.
(a) I only
(b) I and III
(c) II only
(d) I, II and III
6. It can be inferred from the passage that the author regards current
knowledge about the relationship between lithosphere plate motions and the
convection currents in the asthenosphere as
7. The author is most probably addressing which of the following
(a) Geothermal researchers investigating the asthenosphere as a potential
(b) College undergraduates enrolled in, an introductory course on geology
(c) Historians of science studying the origins of plate tectonic theory
(d) Graduate students engaged in analysing the rate of sea-floor spreading
8. Which of the following is not true of the heating of the lithosphere as
it is described in the passage?
(a) The temperature gradient between the lithosphere and the surrounding
mantle enables heat to be transferred from the latter to the former
(b) The more the temperature of the lithospheric slab increases, the more
conductive the rock itself becomes
(c) Minerals in the lithospheric slab release heat in the course of phase
changes that occur during their descent into the mantle
(d) The further the lithospheric slab descends into the mantle, the faster the
radioactive decay of elements within it adds to its heat
At the Fourth World Water Forum held in Mexico City in March 2006, the
120-nation assembly could not reach a consensus on declaring the right to safe
and clean drinking water a human right. Millions of people the world over do not
have access to potable water supply. But it is good times for the bottled-water
industry, which is cashing in on the need for clean drinking water and the
ability of urban elite to pay an exorbitant price for this very basic human
need. The fortunes of this more-than- $100-billion global industry are directly
related to the human apathy towards the environment - the more we pollute our
water bodies, the more the sales of bottled-water. It is estimated that the
global consumption of bottled-water is nearing 200 billion litres - sufficient
to satisfy the daily drinking water need of one-fourth of the Indian population
or about 4.5 per cent of the global population.
In India, the per capita bottled-water consumption is still quite low-less than
five litres a year as compared to the global average of 24 litres. However, the
total annual bottled-water consumption has risen rapidly in recent times – it
has tripled between 1999 and 2004 —from about 1.5 billion litres to five billion
litres. These are boom times for the Indian bottled-water industry - more so
because the economics are sound, the bottom line is fat and the Indian
government hardly cares for what happens to the nation’s water resources. India
is the tenth largest bottled-water consumer in the world.
In 2002, the industry had an estimated turnover of ‘ 10 billion (‘ 1,000 crore).
Today it is one of the India’s fastest growing industrial sectors. Between 1999
and 2004, the Indian bottled-water market grew at a compound annual growth rate
(CAGR) of 25 percent — the highest in the world. With over a thousand
bottled-water producers, the Indian bottled-water industry is big by even
international standards. There are more than 200 brands, nearly 80 per cent of
which are local. Most of the small-scale producers sell non-branded products and
serve small markets. In fact, making bottled-water is today a cottage industry
in the county. Leave alone the metros, where a bottled-water manufacturer can be
found even in a one-room shop, in every medium and small city and even some
prosperous rural areas there are bottled-water manufacturers.
Despite the large number of small producers, this industry is dominated by the
big players —Parle, Bisleri, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Parle Agro, Mohan Meakins, SKN
Breweries and so on. Parle was the first major Indian company to enter the
bottled-water market in the county when it introduced Bisleri in India 25 years
ago. The rise of the Indian bottled water industry began with the economic
liberalisation process in 1991. The market was virtually stagnant until 1991,
when the demand for bottled-water was less than two million cases a year.
However, since 1991-1992 it has not looked back, and the demand in 2004–05 was a
staggering 82 million cases. Bottled-water is sold in a variety of packages:
pouches and glasses, 330 ml bottles, 500 ml bottles, one litre bottles and even
20 to 50 litre bulk water packs. The formal bottled-water business in India can
be divided broadly into three segments in terms of cost: premium natural mineral
water, natural mineral water and packaged drinking water.
Attracted by the huge potential that India’s vast middle class offers,
multinational players such as Coca-Cola and PepsiCo have been trying for the
past decade to capture the Indian bottled-water market. Today, they have
captured a significant portion of it. However, Parle Bisleri continues to hold
40 per cent of the market share. Kinley and Aquafina are fast catching up, with
Kinley holding 20–25 per cent of the market and Aquafina approximately 10 per
cent. The rest, including the smaller players, have 20–25 per cent of the market
The majority of the bottling plants - whether they produce bottled-water or soft
drinks - are dependent on ground-water. They create huge water stress in the
areas where they operate because groundwater is also the main source in most
places the only source - of drinking water in India. This has created huge
conflict between the community and the bottling plants. Private companies in
India can siphon out, exhaust and export groundwater free because the
groundwater law in the country is archaic and not in tune with the realities of
modem capitalist societies. The existing law says that “the person who owns the
land owns the groundwater beneath”. This means that, theoretically, a person can
buy one square metre of land and take all the groundwater of the surrounding
areas and the law of land cannot object to it. This law is the core of the
conflict between the community and the companies and the major reason for making
the business of bottled-water in the country highly lucrative.
9. According to the passage, which one of the following statements is not
(a) Private companies are exploiting groundwater resources in India due to
(b) The growth of Indian bottled-water industry is a pre-economic liberalisation
(c) Manufacturers excluding bigger players have approximately 20-25% of the
market share of battled-water
(d) Bottled-water production in India is a cottage industry today
10. Which brand is having the largest pie in the Indian bottled-water
(b) Parle Bisleri
(c) Pepsi Cola
(d) Mohan Meakins
1 (a), 2 (d), 3 (d), 4 (c), 5 (d), 6 (d), 7 (b), 8
(a), 9 (b), 10 (b)