Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 32
Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution has shaped not
only morphology but also human behaviour. The role those anthropologists ascribe
to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behaviour but one of
imposing constraint ways of feeling, thinking and acting that “come naturally in
archetypal situations in any culture”. Our ‘frailties’, emotion and motives such
as rage, fear, greed, gluttony, joy. lust, love may be a very mixed assortment,
but they share at least one immediate quality: we are as we feel, “in the grip”
of them and this way they give us our sense of constraints.
Unhappily, some of these frailties shape our need for ever increasing security
among them which are presently maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural
details, they, too, are said to be biological in direction, and therefore as
natural to us as our appendices are. We would need to comprehend thoroughly
their adaptive origins in order to understand how badly they snide us now. And
we might then begin to resist their pressures.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to present
1. a p osition on the foundation of human behaviour and on what those
2. a theory outlining the parallel development of human morphology and of human
3. a practical method for resisting the pressure of biologically determined
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1 and 2
2. The author implies that control over the “frailties’ that constrain our
behaviour is thought to presuppose
I. that those frailties are recognized as currently beneficial and adaptive
II. a full understanding of why those frailties evolved and of how they function
(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) Both I and II
(d) None of these
3. It can be inferred that in his discussion of maladaptive frailties the
author assumes that-
I. evolution does not favour the emergence of adaptive characteristics over
the emergence of maladaptive ones.
II. changes in the total human environment can outpace evolutionary change.
(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) Both I and II
(d) None of these
Social justice evades definition, Still in simple and commonly perceived form
social justice may be described as principle which consists in the claims of all
men to advantages and an equal share in all advantages which are commonly
regarded as desirable and which are in fact conducive to human well being. That
is reason why social justice encompasses all the principles of justice e.g.
justice of transactions or rectificatory justice by way’ of restitution and
compensation; justice of conformity to rules or like shall be treated alike;
justice according to deserting one or distributive justice; justice according to
need; justice according to choice. Social justice modified and fixes priority
among the various principles of justice. A jurist very succinctly summaries the
practical shape of contents of social Justice.(1) the principle of social .
Justice requires that all men and women should have a to an equal share in all
those advantages which commonly desired and conducive to human well being; (2)
this principle is not identical with the demand for equal treatment for all men
and women, it rather requires preferential treatment of the privileged under who
lack advantages possessed by others; (3) the principle allocation according to
need is a subordinate aspect of social justice; (4) the principle of conformity
to rules is also subordinate aspect of social justice. This principle is
designed to secure all men and women two advantages; (i) that their reasonable
expectations will be fulfilled and (ii) their dignity is respected; (5)
discrimination is justified only. (i) to give effect to the principle stated in
the two above; (ii) to benefit the exploited (iii) on the basis of conduct and
choice and so far as justice of transactions and special relations require it,
(6) it is arguable that, the equal claim principle is the principle likely in
the long run to lead to social stability.
Now we will discuss about how we are making a transition from equalitarian
justice to equalisationaI justice. Article 46 provides that the state. shall
promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker
sections of the people, and, in particular of the scheduled castes and the
scheduled tries, and shall protect them from social injustices and all forms of
exploitation. It embodies the concept of ‘distributive justice’ which connotes,
inter alia, the removal of economic inequalities and rectifying the injustice
resulting from dealing or transactions between unequals in society.
With a view to ensure social justice to its citizens the Constitution enshrines
many provisions like Articles 15 (4), 16 (4), 19(l) (d)-(e), 275, 330 and 335.
Protective discrimination policy gives concrete shape to the idea of social
justice and with a view to ensure its meaningful purpose the Supreme Court has
kept the creamy layer out of socially and educationally backward classes.
4. Consider the following statements
l. Principle of social justice supposes that all men and women should be
equal stakeholders in all the benefits that accrue to the society.
2. Protective discrimination translates the idea of social justice into reality.
(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1, nor 2
5. Which of the following statements is/ are correct in the light of the
(a) Distributive justice presupposes removal of economic inequalities.
(b) Equal claim is the only claim which in the long sun leads to social
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Neither (a), nor (b)
6. Consider the following statement
1. It is easy to define social justice.
2. The role of the state in minimizing economic inequalities is of great
3. Some kind of discrimination which favour the poor is justified.
4. Social justice encompasses all forms of justice.
5. Act 46 speaks about how to redeem social justice.
(a) 2, 3 and 4
(b) l, 2 and 5
(c) 3, 4 and 5
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
7. Which of the following are the subordinate aspects of social justice ?
1 . The principle of allocation
2. The principle of uniformity
3. Preferential treatment of the underprivileged
(a) only 2
(b) only 1
(c) 1 and 2
(d) only 3
8. Why is social justice more important than other forms of justice ?
(a) It prepares grounds for other justice to take place
(b) It does not show any bias.
(c) It is harbinger to other forms of justice.
(d) It has the capacity to modify and fix priorities among the various
principles of justice.
Among the fundamental qualities a citizen of democracy must have is a deep
concern for the good life of his fellows. He must have a sense of social
responsibility and the will to sink his own immediate interests and the
interests of his class in the common good; to do his full share in working for
But, these qualities alone might lead one to be a well-meaning dictator or an
unthinking follower. The citizen of democracy must also be a man of independent
judgement, he must respect the individualities of others and therefore be
tolerant of opinion in conflict with his own; he must prefer methods of
discussion and persuasion to methods of force.
The citizen of democracy also needs certain intellectual qualities. It is not
enough to love truth, one must learn how to find it. It is easy to teach student
to reason correctly in the physical sciences. It is more difficult to reason
correctly in the social science where their own prejudices and passions are
involved. They must be taught habit of clear thinking in order that they may
acquire the power of recognizing their own prejudices and of-discussing
political and economic questions with the same calm, with the same desire to
understand other person’s position, with the same precision and absence of over
statesman that they would bring to the discussion of a problem in mathematics.
9. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage?
(a) Altruism is the essence of democracy
(b) Reasoned and balanced approach towards a problem are the pillars of
(c) A dispassionate assimilation of ideas and meaningful involvement in the
common wellbeing are fundamental qualities of a citizen
(d) All the above
10. Which ‘contrast’ has been presented in the passage?
(a) differential view for self and others
(b) inability to free oneself form prejudices
(c) coexistence of reason with preoccupation
(d) none of these
1 (a), 2 (d), 3 (b), 4 (b), 5 (a), 6 (c), 7 (d), 8
(d), 9 (c), 10 (a)