: Agriculture: Optional Subject of Main Examination
Ecology and its relevance to man,
natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and
social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Climatic
elements as factors of crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping
pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated
hazards to crops, animals and humans.
Cropping pattern in different
agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short duration
varieties on shifts in cropping patterns. Concepts of multiple cropping,
multistorey, relay and inter-cropping and their importance in relation to food
production. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses,
oil seeds, fibres, sugar and commercial and fodder crops grown during Kharif and
Rabi seasons in different regions of the country.
Important features, scope and
propagation of various types of forestry plantations, such as extension, social
forestry, agro-forestry and natural , forests.
Weeds, their characteristics,
dissemination and association with various crops; their multiplications;
cultural, biological and chemical control of weeds.
Soil - physical, chemical and
biologicai properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Modern
classification of Indian soils, Mineral and organic constituents of
productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils
and plants. Principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious
fertiliser use, integrated nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen in soil,
nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils.
Fixation of phosphorus and potassium in soils and the scope for their efficient
use. Problem soils and their reclamation methods.
Soil conservation planning on
watershed basis. Erosion and run off management in hilly, foot hills and valley
lands; processes and factors affecting them. Dryland agriculture and its
problems. Technology of stabilising agriculture production in rainfed
Water use efficiency in relation to
crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing
run-off losses of irrigation water. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of
water-iogged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents
on soil and water pollution.
Farm management, scope, importance
and characteristics, farm planning. Optimum resources use and budgeting.
Economics of different types of farming systems.
Marketing and pricing of
agricultural inputs and outputs, price fluctuations and their cost; role of
co-operatives in agricultural economy; types and systems of farming and factors,
Agricultural extension, its importance and role, methods of evaluation of
extension programmes, socio-economics survey and status of big, small and
marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers; farm mechanization and its
role in agricultural production .and rural employment. Training programmes for
extension workers; lab-to-land programmes.
Cell Theory, cell structure, cell
organelles and their function, cell division, nucleic acids structure and
function, gene structure and function. Laws of heredity, their significance in
plant breeding. Chromosome structure, chromosomal aberrations, linkage and
cross-over and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy,
euploids and an euploids. Mutation-micro and macro-and their role in crop
improvement. Variation, components of variation. Heritability, sterility and
incompatibility, classification and their application in crop improvement.
Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex-linked, sex-influenced and sex-limited characters.
History of plant breeding. Modes of
reproduction, selfing and crossing techniques. Origin and evolution of crop
plants, centre of origin, law of homologous series, crop genetic resources
conservation and utilization. Application of principles of plant breeding to the
improvement of major field crops. Pure-line selection, pedigree, mass and
recurrent selections, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding.
Hybrid vigour and its exploitation, backcross method of breeding, breeding for
disease and pest resistance, role of interspecific and intergeneric
hybridization. Role of biotechnology in plant breeding. Improved varieties,
hybrids, composites of various crop plants.
Seed technology, its importance.
Different kinds of seeds and their seed production and processing techniques.
Role of public and private sectors in seed production, processing and marketing
Physiology and its significance in agriculture. Imbibition, surface tension,
diffusion and osmosis. Absorption and translocation of water, transpiration of
Enzymes and plant pigments;
photosynthesis modern concepts and factors affecting the process, aerobic and
nonaerobic respiration; C, C and CAM mechanisms. Carbohydrate, protein and fat
Growth and development; photoperiodism and vernalization. Auxins, hormones and
other plant regulators and their mechanism of action and importance in
agriculture. Physiology of seed development and germination; dormancy.
Climatic requirements and
cultivation of major fruits, plants and vegetable crops and flower plants; the
package of practices and their scientific basis. Handling and marketing problems
of fruits and vegetables. Principal methods of preservation of important fruits
and vegetables products, processing techniques and equipment. Role of fruits and
vegetables in human nutrition. Raising of ornamental plants and design and
layout of lawns and gardens.
Diseases and pests of field
vegetables, orchard and plantation crops of India. Causes and classification of
plants pests and diseases. Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated
pest and disease management. Epidemiology and forecasting.
Pesticides, their formulations and
modes of action. Compatibility with rhizobial inoculants. Microbial toxins.
Storage pests and diseases of
cereals and pulses, and their control.
Food production and consumption trends in India. National and international food
policies. Production procurement, distribution and processing constraints.
Relation of food production to national dietary pattern, major deficiencies of
calorie and protein.