Services (Prelims) Examination Special
Quick Revision Notes
Empire - I (Indian
belonged to a branch of the Turks named after Chaghtai,
the second son of Chingez
Khan, the famous Mongol
The foundation of the Mughal empire
in India was laid by Babur, who
was a Chaghtai Turk. He descended from his
fatherâ€™s side from Timur and
was connected on his motherâ€™s side with Chingez
1494, at the age of 11 years, Babur inherited the
small principality of Farghana, now a
province of Chinese Turkistan.
Babur was later deprived of his own
patrimony of Farghana and had to spend his days as
homeless wanderer for about a year. During this
time, while staying with a village headman, he
heard the story of Timurâ€™s exploits in India from
a old lady and this inspired him to begin preparations
to conquer India.
Babur occupied Kabul
in 1504 and after
this it took him 12 years to advance into the heart
Daulat Khan, the most powerful noble
of Punjab, who was discontended with Ibrahim Lodhi,
invited Babur to
Babur occupied Lahore
in 1524 but had to
retreat to Kabul after Daulat Khan turned
against him once he realised that Babur had no
desire to give up his Indian conquests.
Babur attacked and occupied Punjab
again in November 1525.
On April 21, 1526, Babur
proceeded against Ibrahim
Lodhi and met him
at Panipat (First Battle of Panipat).
Although Ibrahim Lodhiâ€™s troops were
vastly superior, Babur managed a victory by
superior strategy and use of artillery, and quickly
occupied Delhi and
battle of Panipat marked the foundation of Mughal
ominion in India.
11. Babur faced
the toughest resistance to his expansion plans from
the Rajput king Rana
with rulers of Marwar, Amber, Gwalior, Ajmer and
Chanderi, as also Sultan Mahmood Lodi, whom
Rana Sangha had acknowledged as ruler of Delhi, met
Babur in a decisive contest at Kanhwa,
a village near Agra, on March
16, 1527. The aim was to prevent the imposition of
another foreign yoke on India. Babur
triumphed over them by using
similar tactics as in Panipat. Another major reason
for defeat of Indian forces was non-joining of
several Afghan chiefs.
the battle of Panipat marked
the defeat of titular Sultan of Delhi, the battle
of Kanhwa resulted in defeat
of the powerful Rajput confederacy.
14. Babur met
the allied Afghans of Bihar and Bengal on the banks
of Gogra, near
Patna, and inflicted a crushing defeat on them on
May 6, 1529. This battle led to a
considerable portion of northern India submitting
Babur died at Agra, at the age of 47,
on December 26, 1530. His body was first laid at Arambagh
in Agra, but was later
taken to Kabul, where it was buried in one of his
During his four-year stay in India, Punjab,
territory covered by United Provinces, and North
Bihar were conquered by Babur.
Rajput State of Mewar
also submitted to him.
translated into Persian by Abdur Rahim Khan-i-
Khananni at the time of Akbar in 1590.
Baburâ€™s son Humayun
throne of India three days after Baburâ€™s death.
Humayun was devoid of wisdom and
discretion, as well as strong determination and
perseverance of his father. Thus,
as a king he was a failure.
Six months after his accession, Humayun
besieged the fortress of Kalinjar in
Bundelkhand, gained a decisive victory over Afghans
at Douhrua and
drove out Sultan Mahmood Lodhi from
even defeated Bahadur Shah of Gujarat. His
victories, however, were short-lived due to weakness
of his character.
Humayunâ€™s forces were defeated by
Afghan ruler Sher Shah Suri at
Chaunsa near Buxar in June 1539.
On May 17, 1540, the Mughals and
the Afghans met again opposite Kannauj. Humayunâ€™s
hopelessly demoralised army was defeated at the
battle, commonly known as battle of Kannaujâ€”also
known as battle of the Ganges or Bilgram. Thus, the
sovereignty of India once more passed to the
Afghans. Humayun had to leave the life of a wanderer
for 15 years.
The intense rivalry of Humayunâ€™s
Askari and Hindalâ€” also
made it difficult for Humayun to pool all his
resources and fight back. 24. During his
wanderings in deserts of Sindh in 1952, Humayun
Banu Begum, daughter of Sheikh Ali Amber Jaini,
who had been a preceptor of Humayunâ€™s brother
On November 23, 1542, Humayun
was blessed with a son, Akbar, at
Amarkotâ€™s Hindu chief Rana Prasad
promised Humayun help
to conquer Thatta
however, could not conquer Bhakker, nor could he
secure asylum. He, thus, left India and threw
himself on the generosity of Shah Tahmashp
Shah of Persia helped Humayun with
a force of 14,000 men on his promising to confirm
to Shia creed,
to have the Shahâ€™s name proclaimed in his Khutba
and to cede Kandhar to
him on his success.
With Persian help Humayun
captured Kandhar and
Kabul in 1545
but refused to cede Kandhar
Civil war among the Suris, afterthe death of Sher
Shah Suri, gave Humayun
an excellent opportunity to reclaim
the throne of Delhi. In February 1555, he captured Lahore,
and after a few months
captured Delhi and