Services (Prelims) Examination Special
Quick Revision Notes
Empire - I (Indian
January 24, 1556, Humayun died following an
accidental fall from the staircase of his library
February 14, 1556, at the age of 13, Akbar was
proclaimed as the successor of Humayun.
the time when Akbar ascended to the thrown, the
country had ceased to enjoy the benefits of reforms
of Sher Shah Suri, through the follies and quarrels
of his successors, and was also effected by a
the time when Humayun died, Potuguese were in
possession of Goa and Diu. The Suris were still in
occupation of the Sher Shahâ€™s dominion. From Agra
to Malwa, and the confines of Jaunpur, owned
the sovereignty of Adil Shah. Delhi to the smaller
Rohtas on the road to Kabul was in hands of Shah
Sikander. The borders of the hills to the
boundaries of Gujarat belonged to Ibrahim Khan.
Sind and Multan had become independent
from the imperial control. Orissa, Malwa, Gujarat
and the local chieftains of Gondwana had also
became independent. South of the Vindhyas lay
the extensive Vijayanagar empire and the Muslim
Sultanates of Khandesh, Berar, Bidar, Ahmadnagar
and Golkunda expressed no interest in northern
Hemu, general and minister of Adil Shah Suri
opposed the Mughals soon after accession of Akbar.
Hemu occupied Agra and Delhi by defeating Tardi
Beg, the Mughal governor of Delhi.
Hemu assumed the title of Raja Vikramjit or
his victory in Delhi.
Akbar, alongwith his trusted guardian Bairam Khan,
challenged Hemu at Panipat, resulting in the second
battle of Panipat. A chance arrow hit in the eye
resulted in Hemu falling unconscious, which
led to his soldiers dispersing in confusion. The
battle marked the real beginning of the
Mughal rule in India and set it on the path
Sikander Suri surrendered to Akbar in 1557 and was
granted a fief in the eastern province. He was
later expelled by Akbar and died as a fugitive.
Ibrahim Suri, after wandering from place to place,
found asylum in Orissa, where he was killed about
10 years later. With his death there remained no
one from the Suri clan to challenge Akbarâ€™s
claim to sovereignty. Sher Shah Suri
Sher Shah Suri effected the revival of Afghan
power and established a glorious,
though short, regime in India by ousting the newly
established Mughal authority.
Sher Shahâ€™s name was Farid. His grandfather,
Ibrahim, was an Afghan of Suri tribe and lived near
Peshawar. His fatherâ€™s name was Hassan.
Farid was conferred the title of Sher Khan by Bahar
Khan Lohani, independent ruler of Bihar, for having
shown gallantry by killing a tiger singlehanded.
Sher Shah joined the Baburâ€™s camp in April 1527
and remained in it till June 1528. In return for
his services, Babur restored the jagir
of Sasaram to him.
war against allied troops of Bengal Sultan and the
Lohanis of Surajgarh, on the banks of Kiul
river was a
turning-point in the career of Sher Shah. It made
him the undisputed ruler of Bihar.
victory in battle with the Mughal forces led by
Humayun, at Chaunsa near Buxar, led to Sher Shah
becoming de facto ruler
of the territories ruled by the Mughals.
May 17, 1540, in the Battle of Kannauj, Sher Shahâ€™s
forces gave a crushing defeat to Humayunâ€™s forces
and the sovereignity of India once again passed
to the Afghans.
Sher Shah died on
May 22, 1545 from an accidental explosion of
Sher Shah divided his empireinto 47 units (sarkars),
each of which was sub-divided into several paraganas.
paragana had one Amin, one
Shiqdar, one treasurer,
one Hindi text writer
and one Perisan writer to keep accounts.
and Munsifi- Munsifan
supervised the works of the paragana officers.
Shahâ€™s land revenue reforms have
unique importance in the administrative history of
India. They served as the model for future agrarian
Sher Shah settled the land revenue directly
with the cultivators, the State demand being fixed
at one-fourth or onethird of the average produce,
payable in either kind or cash.
actual collection of revenue the services of
officers like Amins, Muqadams, Shiqdars,
Qanungos and the Patwaris were taken.
rights of tenants were
recognised and the liabilities of each were clearly
defined in the kabuliyat (deed
of agreement) and the patta
Sher Shah connected the important places by a chain
of excellent roads. The longest of these was
the Grand Trunk Road, which still survives and
extended from Sonargaon in East Bengal to the
Indus. One road ran from Agra to Burhanpur,
another from Agra to Jodhpur and a fourth from
Lahore to Multan.
or rest-houses were set-upat different places
along the roads. These also served the purpose of
post-houses. 58. Sher Shah re-organised the army,
borrowing largely the main principles of Ala-ud-din
Khiljiâ€™s military system.
After Sher Shahâ€™s death, his son Jalal Khan was
proclaimed king under the title of Sultan
Islam Shah, commonly known
as Salim Shah.
Salim Shah was a strong and efficient ruler but he
died young in November 1554 and disorder soon