(Prelims) Examination Special
Quick Revision Notes
Empire - V :
Empire - V (Jahangir) :
1. Jahangir was
born to Maryam-uz-Zamani and
Akbar on August 30, 1569. He was named Sultan
Muhammad Salim after Shaikh
Salim Chishti of Fatehpur Sikri. Akbar,
however, called him Shaikhu Baba.
Abdur Rahim Khan Khana, a
profound scholar of Arabic, Turki,
Persian, Sanskrit and Hindi, as also a soldier and
diplomat of no mean order influenced Jahangir the most and
moulded his thoughts. Most of Jahangirâ€™s education took place
under Abdur Rahim.
At the age of 15, Jahangir was married to his cousin Manbai,
daughter of Raja Bhagwan Dass of
Amber. The ceremony was performed both
according to Hindu and Muslim rites.
Jahangir gave Manbai the title of Shah
Begum. She committed
suicide in 1604 owing to her son Khusravâ€™s
towards her husband.
Jagat Gosain or Jodhabai, daughter
of Mota Raja Udai Singh was
also among the most important of several wives
morals and addiction to wine and other
degrading pleasures enraged Akbar, who then tried to bring
him round by threat of punishment. The estrangement led
to open revolt by Salim. When Akbar set out of South to reconquer
made a dash for Agra in order to capture
the huge treasure. He was, however, foiled in his attempt
and subsequently went to Allahabad and set up his court
there. He brought a part of Bihar under his control and set
himself up as an independent king.
Akbar sent Khwaja Muhammad Sharif, a
playmate and friend of Prince, to
Allahabad on a mission of peace. But Salim
won him over and appointed him chief minister.
The fact that Akbarâ€™s second son, Murad,
dead and his third son, Daniyal, was
visibly dying made Akbar weak and forced
him to take forget and forgive Salimâ€™s
follies. Salima Begum, Jahangirâ€™s
step-mother, ultimately persuaded the
prince to return to his path of duty.
After Akbarâ€™s death in 1605, Prince Salim acceded to the
throne and assumed the title of Nuruddin Mohammad Jahangir
Immediately after coronation, Jahangir prohibited levy
of many cesses, called tamgha, mir
Jahangir also abolished the punishment of cutting nose
Jahangir also prohibited the slaughter of animals on
certain days in the year and two days in every week, that is,
Thursday, which was his accession day, and Sunday, the day
of Akbarâ€™s birth.
Jahangir caused a gold chain with bells to be hung between
the Shah Burj in
the Agra Fort and a post on the road near
the bank of Yamuna, so as to enable suitors for justice to
ring the bell and approach the emperor without the mediation
of any officer or servant.
Within a few months of Jahangirâ€™s accession his eldest
son Khusrav revolted.
Due to the past conduct of Khusrav,
Jahangir had confined him to one corner of Agra fort.
On April 6, 1606, on the pretence of a visit to Akbarâ€™s mausoleum
at Sikandra, Khusrav
proceeded rapidly towards Delhi. On his
way he was joined by Husain Beg Badakhshi.
Passing by Delhi, he made his way towards Lahore
and on the way was joined by Abdur
Rahman, the diwan
of that province. At Taran Taran, the prince obtained
benediction of Guru Arjan Dev, the
fifth Guru of Sikhs.
On reaching Lahore, Khusrav found the fort put in a
state of defence by the governor Dilawar
Khan. Jahangir sent
a contingent of troops under Shaikh
Farid, as also proceeded himself
towards Lahore. The parties engaged in a fight
on the plain of Baharowal. Khusrav was defeated and forced
to flee towards Kabul. He was, however, captured by Jahangirâ€™s
forces, along with Husain Beg and Abdur Rehman.
Jahangir imposed a fine of Rs two lakh on Guru Arjan
Dev for bestowing benediction to Khusrav. The Guru, however,
refused to pay and was consequently put to death. The
Guruâ€™s death estranged Sikhs from the Mughals and led to
their rebellion in the time of Aurangzeb.
The most fateful consequence of Khusravâ€™s rebellion, followed
by internal disturbances in the country, was the
encouragement of the Shah of Persia to
make a bid for the capture of fortress of Kandhar.
a bone of contention between Persia and
India during the medieval age. Kandhar was a gateway and
a natural base of operations for a Persian or Central Asian
invader. Its commercial importance was no less great. It
connected the principal trade routes from India to Central Asia
and Europe. Babur, who was aware of Kandharâ€™s importance,
captured it in 1522. After the death of Humayun,
Kandhar passed out of Mughal control, but Akbar
recovered it in 1594.
In 1611, Jahangir married a widow named Mehrun- nisa,
who was given the title of Nur
Mahal, subsequently changed
into Nur Jahan. She
began exercising unbounded influence on
the emperor and the administration of Mughal
Nur Jahan was daughter of Ghiyas Beg, a
Persian adventurer in Akbarâ€™s court, who
was honoured with the title of
Within a few years of her marriage, Nur Jahan organized
a party of her own and took the reins of the government in
her hands. The party was known as Nur Jahan Junta
and consisted of herself, her parents, her brothers and prince
was the husband of her niece.
Nur Jahan exercised healthy influence on Jahangir. It
was owing to her influence that Jahangir restrained himself from
excessive drinking. Her influence over Jahangir was
good and benefited the poor and the needy, as also the votaries
of letters and art.
On political and administrative affairs the influence of
Nur Jahan was
negative. Her dealings with Prince
Khurram and Prince
Shahryar almost convulsed the empire
in a civil war.
Akbar could not conquer the whole of Mewar
stiff resistance from Rana Pratap. Infact,
Rana Pratap was able to recover a
considerable portion of his territory before his
death in 1597. In 1605, Jahangir deputed his second son Parwez
to reduce Rana Pratapâ€™s son Rana
Amar Singh to submission.
A tough battle was fought at the pass
of Dewar but it proved indecisive.