(Prelims) Examination Special
Quick Revision Notes
Empire - V :
Empire - V (Jahangir) :
25. Sagar, an
uncle of Rana Amar Singh, who had deserted
his nephew and lived as a pensioner at the Mughal court,
accompanied Prince Parwez in the expedition to defeat
Rana Amar Singh.
In 1608, Jahangir sent another force, this time under Mahabat
Khan, to subdue Rana Amar Singh. He also failed in
In 1609, Abdulla Khan was
appointed incharge. He defeated Prince
Karan but was, in turn, beaten by
Rajputs at Ranpura, the
northernmost key-point of Mewar.
Jahangir appointed Raja Basu to
defeat Rana Amar Singh but he too failed.
Raja Basu was then replaced by Mirza
Aziz Koka and in 1613 Jahangir personally moved to Ajmer
to be near the scene of action and exert pressure. The supreme
command of the Mughal army was now entrusted to
Prince Khurram. In the constant struggle both sides lost heavily
but the Rajputs suffered more due to famine. The resources
of tiny Mewar exhausted and Amar Singh offered negotiations.
A treaty of peace was
concluded between Rana Amar
Singh and Jahangir in
1615. Rana recognized Jahangir as his
suzerain. Jahangir restored all the territory to Rana,
including Chittor, that had been seized during Akbarâ€™s
reign. The Rana was not obliged to attend the imperial durbar
and, unlike other Rajput chiefs, the Rana was not required
to enter into a matrimonial alliance with the Mughal
The treaty of 1615, for
the first time, brought the end to the
long-drawn struggle between Mewar and
Rana of Mewar hereafter remained loyal to the Mughal throne,
till Aurangzeb, by his thoughtless policy, drove Raj Singh
in an open rebellion.
Jahangir adopted Akbarâ€™s policy of conquering the
whole of India and bringing it under the rule of his dynasty.
In 1608, Jahangir directed the Khan
Khana to conquer
the remaining parts of South. But,
he could make a little headway due to
stiff resistance of Malik Ambar, the
prime minister of Ahmadnagar.
He used the guerilla
warfare very effectively to defeat
the Mughal army.
In 1616, Jahangir made Prince Khurram
incharge of the southern command and himself
moved to Mandu with all his court
to be near the scene of warfare. Overawed
by superior force, Malik Ambar at once opened
for negotiations. A treaty was signed in 1617 under
which Malik Ambar ceded all the territory of Balghat,
which he had recently seized from Mughals, as
also surrendered the fort of Ahmadnagar.
Jahangir was overjoyed with
Khurramâ€™s success and conferred on him the high
sounding title of Shahjehan.
The treaty of 1617 was brushed aside by Malik Ambar
in 1620 when he formed a league with Bijapur
and launched an attack on Mughal commander Khan
Khana. Jahangir again deputed Shahjehan
to take charge
of the operation, who successfully forced Ambar tosubmission. The kingdoms of
Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golkunda were also
made to pay a tribute to the emperor.
Jahangir lost Kandhar in
1622 to Perisan rulers due to infighting
among the Nur Jahan Junta, as
also the estranged relations between Shah
Jehan and Nur Jahan, and subsequent
rebellion of Shah Jehan.
The three-year-old rebellion of Shah
Jehan convulsed the
empire with a civil war and caused a considerable loss
of money and men. It came to an end in April 1626 after
Shah Jahan, faced with nothing but destruction, decided to
surrender and seek emperorâ€™s pardon.
The entire operation of dealing with Shah Jahanâ€™s rebellion
was undertaken under Mahabat Khan, the
greatest soldier and diplomat of the
Difference between Nur Jahan and
Mahabat Khan compelled
Mahabat Khan to bring Jahangir under
his control by a coup
dâ€™ etat and thus deprive Nur Jahan
of power in the State. He was helped in
this by mostly Rajput soldiers.
Mahabat Khan remained
the de facto ruler
for 100 days, before Jahangir managed to
overthrow him and take charge. Mahabat
Khan was not a very capable administrator and
this led to his fall.
After regaining his freedom from Mahabat Khan,
Jahangir, whose health had completely broken down,
set out for Kashmir in
March 1627. But he could not regain health
in Kashmir and decided to return to Lahore.
During his return journey he was taken ill and died
on November 7, 1627 near Bhimbar. He
was burried at Shahdara