(Notes) Civil Services (Prelims) Examination : Mughal Empire - V Quick Revision Notes (II)

Civil Services (Prelims) Examination Special
Quick Revision Notes


Mughal Empire - V : Indian History

Mughal Empire - V (Jahangir) :
Sagar, an uncle of Rana Amar Singh, who had deserted his nephew and lived as a pensioner at the Mughal court, accompanied Prince Parwez in the expedition to defeat Rana Amar Singh.

26. In 1608, Jahangir sent another force, this time under Mahabat Khan, to subdue Rana Amar Singh. He also failed in the mission.

27. In 1609, Abdulla Khan was appointed incharge. He defeated Prince Karan but was, in turn, beaten by Rajputs at Ranpura, the northernmost key-point of Mewar.

28. Jahangir appointed Raja Basu to defeat Rana Amar Singh but he too failed. Raja Basu was then replaced by Mirza Aziz Koka and in 1613 Jahangir personally moved to Ajmer to be near the scene of action and exert pressure. The supreme command of the Mughal army was now entrusted to Prince Khurram. In the constant struggle both sides lost heavily but the Rajputs suffered more due to famine. The resources of tiny Mewar exhausted and Amar Singh offered negotiations.

29. A treaty of peace was concluded between Rana Amar Singh and Jahangir in 1615. Rana recognized Jahangir as his suzerain. Jahangir restored all the territory to Rana, including Chittor, that had been seized during Akbar’s reign. The Rana was not obliged to attend the imperial durbar and, unlike other Rajput chiefs, the Rana was not required to enter into a matrimonial alliance with the Mughal ruling family.

30. The treaty of 1615, for the first time, brought the end to the long-drawn struggle between Mewar and Delhi. The Rana of Mewar hereafter remained loyal to the Mughal throne, till Aurangzeb, by his thoughtless policy, drove Raj Singh in an open rebellion.

31. Jahangir adopted Akbar’s policy of conquering the whole of India and bringing it under the rule of his dynasty.

32. In 1608, Jahangir directed the Khan Khana to conquer the remaining parts of South. But, he could make a little headway due to stiff resistance of Malik Ambar, the prime minister of Ahmadnagar. He used the guerilla warfare very effectively to defeat the Mughal army.

33. In 1616, Jahangir made Prince Khurram incharge of the southern command and himself moved to Mandu with all his court to be near the scene of warfare. Overawed by superior force, Malik Ambar at once opened for negotiations. A treaty was signed in 1617 under which Malik Ambar ceded all the territory of Balghat, which he had recently seized from Mughals, as also surrendered the fort of Ahmadnagar. Jahangir was overjoyed with Khurram’s success and conferred on him the high sounding title of Shahjehan.

34. The treaty of 1617 was brushed aside by Malik Ambar in 1620 when he formed a league with Bijapur and Golkunda and launched an attack on Mughal commander Khan Khana. Jahangir again deputed Shahjehan to take charge of the operation, who successfully forced Ambar tosubmission. The kingdoms of Ahmednagar, Bijapur and Golkunda were also made to pay a tribute to the emperor.

35. Jahangir lost Kandhar in 1622 to Perisan rulers due to infighting among the Nur Jahan Junta, as also the estranged relations between Shah Jehan and Nur Jahan, and subsequent rebellion of Shah Jehan.

36. The three-year-old rebellion of Shah Jehan convulsed the empire with a civil war and caused a considerable loss of money and men. It came to an end in April 1626 after Shah Jahan, faced with nothing but destruction, decided to surrender and seek emperor’s pardon.

37. The entire operation of dealing with Shah Jahan’s rebellion was undertaken under Mahabat Khan, the greatest soldier and diplomat of the Mughal empire.

38. Difference between Nur Jahan and Mahabat Khan compelled Mahabat Khan to bring Jahangir under his control by a coup d’ etat and thus deprive Nur Jahan of power in the State. He was helped in this by mostly Rajput soldiers.

39. Mahabat Khan remained the de facto ruler for 100 days, before Jahangir managed to overthrow him and take charge. Mahabat Khan was not a very capable administrator and this led to his fall.

40. After regaining his freedom from Mahabat Khan, Jahangir, whose health had completely broken down, set out for Kashmir in March 1627. But he could not regain health in Kashmir and decided to return to Lahore. During his return journey he was taken ill and died on November 7, 1627 near Bhimbar. He was burried at Shahdara near Lahore.

<< Previous