1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Viruses, bacteria, and plasmids-structure
and reproduction. General account of infection, Phytoimmunology. Applications
of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in
air, soil and water.
Important plant diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and
nematodes. Mode of infection and dissemination. Molecular basis of infection
and disease resistance/defence. Physiology of parasitism and control measures.
2. Cryptogams: Algae, Fungi, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes-structure and
reproduction from evolutonary viewpoint. Distribution of Cryptogams in India
and their economic potential.
3. Phanerogams: Gymnosperms: Concept of Progymonosperms. Classification and
distribution of Gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Coniferrals and
Gnetales, their structures and reproduction. General account of
Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordaitales.
Angiosperms: Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogeny.
Comparative account of various systems of Angiosperm Classiification. Study of
angiospermic familiesâ€“Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae
(Cruci-ferae), Rosaceae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceaie,
Dipterocar-paceae, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae,
Solana-ceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae (Composite), Poaceae
(Gramineae), Arecaceae (Palmae), Liliaceae, Musaceae, Orchidaceae. Stomata and
their types. Anomalous secondary growth, Anatomy of C 3 and C 4 plants.
Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization.
Endospermâ€“its development and function. Patterns of embryo development.
Polyembryony, apoxmix, Applications of palynology.
4. Plant Utility and Exploitation:
Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov's centres of origin. Plants as sources
for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, drugs, narcotics, insecticides,
timber, gums, resins and dyes. Latex, cellulose Starch and their products.
Perfumery. Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context. Energy plantation.
Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.
5. Morphogenesis: Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation. Cell,
tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids.
1. Cell Biology: Techniques of Cell Biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic
cells -structural and ultrastructural details. Structure and function of
extracellular matrix or ECM (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane
transport and vesicular transport. Structure and function of cell organelles
(chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, ribosomes, endosomes, lysosomes, peroxisomes,
hydrogenosome). Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex. Chromatin and
nucleosome. Cell signalling and cell receptors. Signal transduction (G-1
proteins, etc.). Mitosis and meisdosis; molecular basis of cell cycle.
Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance.
Study of polytene, lampbrush and B-chromosomesâ€“structure, behaviour and
2. Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution: Development of genetics, and
gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles). Quantitative genetics and
multiple factors. Linkage and crossing overâ€“methods of gene mapping
including molecular maps (idea of mapping function). Sex chromosomes and
sexlinked inheritance, sex determination and molecular basis of sex
differentiation. Mutation (biochemical and molecular basis). Cytoplasmic
inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).
Prions and prion hypothesis.
Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and protines. Genetic code and
regulation of gene expression. Multigene families.
Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories. Role of RNA in origin and
3. Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics: Methods of plant breeding
-- introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass
selection, bulk method). Male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of
apomixis in plant breeding. Micropropagation and genetic engineeringâ€“methods
of transfer of genes and transgenic crops; development and use of molecular
markers in plant breeding.
Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance
(Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests). Probability and distributions (normal,
binomial and Poisson distributions). Correlation and regression.
4. Physiology and Biochemistry: Water relations, Mineral nutrition and
ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesisâ€“photochemical reactions,
photophosphorylation and carbon pathways including C pathway
(photorespiration), C, C and CAM pathways. Respiraion (anaerobic and aerobic,
including fermentation-electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation.
Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen
metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes, energy transfer and energy conservation.
Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial
pigments and phytochrome). Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization,
senescence. Growth substances-their chemical nature, role and applications in
agri-horticulture, growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat,
water, salinity, metal). Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and
germination of seed. Fruit ripening -- its molecular basis and manipulation.
5. Ecology and Plant Geography: Ecological factors. Concepts and
dynamics of community. Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere. Ecosystems and
their conservation. Pollution and its control (including phytoremediation).
Forest types of India -- afforestation, deforestation and social
forestry. Endangered plants, endemism and Red Data Books. Biodiversity.
Convention of Biological Diversity, Sovereign Rights and Intellectual Property
Rights. Biogeochemical cyeles. Global warming.