The Solar System, meteorities, origin and interior of the earth.
Radioactivity and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, volcanic
belts. Earthquakes-causes, effects, earthquake belts, seismicity of India,
intensity and magnitude, seismongraphs. Island arcs, deep sea trenches and
mid-ocean ridges. Continental drift-evidences and mechanics; seafloor
spreading, plate tectonics. Isostasy, orogeny and epeirogeny. Continents and
(ii) Geomorphology and Remote Sensing
Basic concepts of geomorphology. Weathering and mass wasting. Landforms,
slopes and drainage. Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation. Morphology
and its relation to structures and lithology. Applications of geomorphology in
mineral prospecting, civil engineering,. hydrology and environmental studies.
Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent.
Aerial photographs and their interpretation-mertis and limitations. The
Electronmagnetic Spectrum. Orbiting satellites and sensor systems. Indian
Remote Sensing Sataellites. Satellites data products. Applications of remote
sensing in geology. The Geographic Information System and its applications.
Global Positioning System.
(iii) Structural geology
Priniples of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, stress
and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and
viscous materials. Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and
rocks under deformation conditions. Folds and faults classification and
mechanics. Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and
faults, unconformities. Superposed deformation. Time-relationship between
crystallization and deformation. Introduction to petrofabrics.
Species- definition and nomenclature. Megafossils and Microfossils. Modes
of preservation of fossils. Different kinds of microfossils. Application of
microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and
paleoceanographic studies. Morphology, geological history and evolutionary
trend in Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Brachiopoda, Echinoidea and Anthozoa.
Stratigraphic utility of Ammonoidea, Trilobita and Graptoloidea. Evolutionary
trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae. Siwalik fauna. Gondwana flora and
(v) Stratigraphy and Geology of India
Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic,
biostratigraphic, chro-nostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their
interrelationships. Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of
India. Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks
of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. Major
boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary
and Pliocene/Pleistocene. Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and
igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past. Tectonic
framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.
(vi) Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology : Hydrologic cycle and genetic
classification of water. Movement of subsruface water. Springs. Porosity,
permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient,
classification of aquifers. Water-bearing characteristics of rocks.
Groundwater chemistry. Salt water intrusion. Types of wells. Drainage basin
morphometry. Exploration for groundwater. Groundwater recharge. Problems and
management of groundwater. Rainwater harvesting. Engineering properties of
rocks. Geological investigations for dams, tunnels and bridges. Rock as
construction material. Alkali-aggregate reaction. Landslides-causes,
prevention and rehabilitation. Earthquake-resistant structures.
Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry.
International system of crystallographic notation. Use of projection diagrams
to represent crystal symmetry. Crystal defects. Elements of X-ray
Petrological microscope and accessories. Optical properties of common rock
forming minerals. Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction,
birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals. Physical and chemical
characters of rock forming slilicate mineral groups. Structural classification
of silicates. Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Minerals of
the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups.
(ii) Igneous ad Metamorphic Petrology
Generation and crystallisation of magma. Crystallisation of
albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopside-wollastonite-silica systems.
Reaction principle., Magmatic differentation and assimilation. Petrogenetic
significance of the textures and structrues of igneous rocks. Petrography and
petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups,
charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic
Types and agents of metamporphism. Metamporphic grdes and zones. Phase rule.
Facies of regional and contact metamorphism. ACF and AKF diagrams. Textures
and structures of metamporphic rocks. Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous
and basic rocks. Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism. Metasomatism
and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.
Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation. diagenesis and lithification.
Properties of sediments. Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification,
petrography and depositional environment. Sedimentary facies and provenance.
Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their
significance. Sedminetary basins of India.
(iv) Economic Geology
Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore
deposits. Process of formation of minerals deposits. Controls of ore
localisation. Ore textures and structures. Metallogenic epochs and provinces.
Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold,
iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial
minerals. Deposits of coal and petroleum in India. National Mineral Policy.
Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. Marine mineral resources
and Law of Sea.
(v) Mining Geology
Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and
geobotanical. Techniques of sampling. Estimation of reserves or ore. Mehtods
of exploration and mining metallic ores, industrial minerals and marine
mineral resources. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.
(vi) Geochemistry and Environmental Geology
Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites.
Structure and compostion of earth and distribution of elements. Trace
elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination
number. Isolmorphism and polymorphism. Elementary thermodynamics.
Natural hazards-floods, landslides, coastal erosion, earthquakes and volcanic
activity and mitigation. Environmental impact of urbanization, open cast
mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping
of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine
pollution Environment protection-legislative measures in India.