Classical Dances of India: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams
CLASSICAL DANCES OF INDIA
Bharata Natyam is a classical dance form originating in Tamil Nadu. In ancient times it was performed as ‘dasiattam’ by Devadasis. Bharatanatyam is popularly called poetry in Motion. E.Krishna Iyer was one of those who raised the social status of Bharata atyam and greatly popularized it. Ifollows the principle of Nat ya Shastra. Rugmini devi Arundale gave it a new life and revived it by stablishing ‘Kalakshetra’ at Adayar, Chennai.
Musical dialects based on individual temperaments, vocal capacity and musical aptitude.
Name of Gharana Place Founder
Gwalior Gharana Gwalior Nanthan Khan
Agra Agra Hajisujan Khan
Rangeela Agra Faiyyaz Khan
Jaipur Atroli Jaipur Alladiya Khan
Kiran Gharana Avadh Abdul Wahid Khan
Kathak : It is a North Indian Classical dance form. The story of Kathak begins in ancient times with the performances of professional storytellers called Kathakas who recited stories from epics and mythology with some elements of dance. The work of the Maharaj family of dancers (Acchan Maharaj, Shambu Maharaj, Lachhu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj) helped in spreading the popularity of Kathak.
Kathakali : This dance form is from Kerala. Kat haka li or iginated from Rama natt am. Traditinally a Kathakali onducted at night and ends in early morning. But now it has been reduced to three hours or even lesser.In Kathakali, the story is enacted purely by the movements of the hands and by facial expressions and bodily movements. The makeperformance is usually up of Kathakali artists are Pachcha, Kathi, Kari, Thaadi and Minukku.
Gatka ........................................ Punjabi
Paika ......................................... Orissa
Thag Ta .................................... Manipur
Kalaripayattu ............................. Kerala
Choliya ...................................... Uttaranchal
Pang Lhabosol. ......................... Sikkim
Kuchipudi is the classical form of Andhra Pradesh. The dance is accompanied by song which is typi cally carnatic music.The technique of Kuchipudi makes use of fast rhythmic footwork and sculpuresque body movements. Kuchipudi is a combination of Natya, Nritta and Nritya.
Manipuri dance is a classical dance from Manipur. The dancers feet never strike the ground hard. Movements of the body and feet and facial expressions in Manipuri dance are suitable and aim at devotion and grace.
Mohiniyattam is a dance form from Kerala. It is considered a very graceful dance meant to be performed as solo recital by women. Maharaja Swathi Tirunal, poet Vallathol Narayana Menon through Kerala Kalamandalam founded by him and Smt.Kalamandalam Kalyanikutty Amma revived Mohiniyattom.
Odissi : Classical dance form of Odisha (Orissa). Odissi is the oldest classical dance rooted in rituals and tradition. It is particularly distinguis hed from other classical Indian dance forms by the importance it places upon the independent movement of head, chest and pelvis.
Sattriya is a classical dance form from Assam.It was recognized as a classical dance by Sangeet Natak Academi on November 15, 2000. Sattriya Nritya was usually performed in the Sattras (Assam monasteries) in a highly ritialistic manner by male dancers alone. But in the second half of the 19th Century Sattriya Nritya moved from the monastery to the metropolitan stage. The core of Sattriya Nritya has usually been mythological stories.
Classical Dance Exponents
Kelucharan Mohapatra, Pankaj Charan Das, Hare Krishna Behera , Sonal Man singh, Kabita Dwivedi, Kiran Sehgal, Madhvi Mudgal , Sharon Lewon, Myrta Barvil. Indarani Rahman, Priyambada Mohanty.
Bharata Natyam Rujkmini Devi Arundale(of Kalakhestra Fame) T Bala- sarswathi, Yamini Krishna Mur- thy, Padma Subramaniyam, Mri- nalini Sarabhai, Vaijayantimala Bali, Leela Samson.
Kuchipudi T. Bala sarswathi ,Esther Sherman, Ragini Devi, Indrani Rahman, Swapna Sundari, . Sobha Naidu, Raja Reddy, Radha Reddy, Vempati Chinna Satyam, Satyanarayanan Sharma , Sudha Sekhara , Rajaram Rao, G. Sarala
Kathakali Mukunda Raja (of Kalmandalam fame), Koppan Nair, V Kunju Kurupu, Gopinathan Krishnan, VN Menon, Kottakkal Sivaraman.
Mohiniattam Kalyani Amma, Shanta Rao, Roshan Vejifdar, Bharati Shivaji, Kanak Rele.
Manipuri Jhaveri Sisters, Charu Mathur, Sadhona Bose, Bipin Singh, Rita Devi , Savita Ivkihta , Tandor Devi.
Kathak Bitju Maharaj, Kalka-BindaGharana, Kunudini Lakhia, Damayanti Joshi, Rani Karna, Saswati Sen, Roshan Kumari, Gopi Krishna, Sitara Devi, Sambhu Maharaj , Ananda Shankar, Shovna Narayan, Bhandana Mangal, Kulgrani Bhatt, Gitanjali Lal.