Mass Communications: Art & Culture for UPSC Exams
Prasar Bharati: Prasar Bharati is the public service broadcaster in the country with All India Radio and Doordarshan as its two constituents. It came into existence on 23 November, 1997. Its head quarters is in Delhi. The major objectives of the Prasar Bharati Corporation are as follows.
1) Upholding the unity and integrity of the country and the values enshrined in the constitution.
2) Promoting national integration.
3) Safe guarding citizen’s rights and to be informed on all matters of public interest and presenting a fair and balanced flow of information.
4) Paying special attention to the fiel ds of education and spread of literacy, agriculture, rural development, health and family welfare and science and technology.
5) Creating awareness a bout women’s issues and taking special steps to protect the interests of children, the aged and other vulnerable sections of society.
6) Providing adequate coverage to the diverse cultures , sports and games and youth affairs.
7) Promoting social justice, safeguarding the rights of working classes , minorities and tribal communities.
8) Expanding broadcasting facilities and promoting research and development in broadcast technology. The present chairman of Prasar Bharati - Ms. Mrinal Pande
RADIO: Radio Broadcasting started in India in 1927 with two privately owned transmitters at Mumbai and Kolkata, which were taken over by the Government in 1930. These were operating under the name “India Broadcasting Service” until 1936 when it was given the present name “ All India Radio (AIR)”. It also came to be known as “Akashwani” from 1957. All India Radio, informs, educates and entertains people through its programmes broadcast from various stations. The AIR network comprises the national channel, regional stations, local radio stations, Vividh Bharati Centres. FM Stereo services and North - Eastern Services. All India Radio is one of the largest broadcasting networks in the world. As in December 2009 the network comprises 233 stations and 375 transmitters, which provide radio coverage to 99 . 1 6 percent of t he population and reaches 91.82 percent area of the country.
External Services of All India Radio: All India Radio entered the realm of external broadcasting shortly after the outbreak of the second world war on 1 October 1939. The languages in which AIR reaches its foreign audience are English, French, Russian, Swahili, Arabic, Persian, Pushto, Dari, Baluchi. Sinhalese, Nepali, Tibetan, Chinese, Thai, Burmese and Bhasha Indonesia. The services in Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Gujarati are directed at overseas Indians.
Vividh Bharati: Vividh Bharati, which is a popular entertainment programme, is broadcast from 40 centres in India including four short wave transmitters at Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Guwahati- Commer ci al b roa dcas ti ng cent res ar e at Chandigarh, Kanpur and Vadodara and two s tudi o centres at Bhuba neswar and Shantiniketan. The great merit of Vividh Bharati service is that it provides entertainment for 15 hours a day to the listeners. Commercial broadcasting on Radio was introduced in November 1967 as an experimental measure. Now it is carried by 31 centres. Army men fighting the Kargil war during 1999 stayed connected with their family members through Vividh Bharati’s popular programe in Hello Jaimala.
Yuva Vani: Yuva Vani gives programmes for the youth from 74 stations. The service provides a forum for the youth to present their viewpoint by participating in talks, discussions, interviews, plays, features and music. It is a service of the youth, by the youth and for the youth.
Archives Digital Library: A special project was launched to digitize all archival recordings in 2001. By this Akashavani has become one of the major digital libraries in the broadcasting network with modern tape numb ering system in tune with the internationally accepted norms.
FM Radio: First FM service was started in 1972 in Madras and later in 1992 at Jalander. In 1993 AIR sold time slots for private FM Radio Broadcasting in 5 cities (Madras, Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta and Goa). They were soon followed by stations in Hyderbad, Jaipur and Lucknow. In 1999 Government of India privatized FM broadcating but it failed because the Government demanded higher revenues from private broadcasters.
The Ministry finally invited bids for FM frequencies in 2001 from across the country. However, this did not work out as foreseen as most private players bid heavily and most could not meet their commitments to pay the government the amounts they owed. Only a few stations like Radio City, Radio Mirchi and Red FM managed to sustain themselves.The Phase II of FM licensing happened in 2006, where some 338 frequencies were offered of which about 237 were sold. In Phase III of FM licensing the government went for re- bidding of unsold frequencies. In this smaller towns and cities opened up for FM Radio.
DOORDARSHAN: Doordarshan starts its service on 15 September 1959 at Delhi on an experimental basis. The second television centre was started in Bombay in 1972 and later it was expanded to other places. The rapid expansion of DD started in 1984. Doordarshan is presently operating 31 TV Channels besides free to air DTH Service.
DD National Channel: DD National is the No. 1 channel in the country in terms of absolute viewership. The service is available in terrestrial mode from 5.30 am till mid night. In the satellite mode it is available round the clock. All major national events are covered live.
Sports Channel:Sports channel of Doordarshan was launched on 18 March 1999. On 25th April 1999 the transmission hours of the channel was increased from 10 hours to 12 hourss a day. From June 2000 onwards the transmission hours have been extended to round the clock.
DD India: The Channel, initially known as DD World was launched on 14 March 1995. In 2002 it was renamed DD India. It is a round - the - clock channel. It offers its international viewers update on the Indian social, cultural, political and economic scene.
DD Bharati: DD Bharati Channel was launched by Prasar Bharati on 26 J anuary 2002. It telecasts progr ammes on music, dance, women education, health children.
DD Direct Plus: Doordarshan launched free - to air DTH Service “ DD Direct Plus” in December 2004 with 33 TV Channels primarily for providing TV coverage to the areas hithero uncovered by terrestrial transmitters DTH signals are uplinked to INSAT 4- B satellite from the DTH centre located at Todapur, New Delhi. DTH signals (KU Band) can be received anywhere in the country (expect Andaman Nicobar islands) with the help of small sized dish receiver units. Presently there are 58 TV channels on Doordarshan’s DTH platform. DTH service in C- Band with 10 DD Channels especially for Andaman Nicobar Islands has been started in September 2009.