(Download) CAPF (AC) Exam, 2012 Paper - "General Studies, Essay & Comprehension"
Exam Name: CAPF (AC)
Subject: General Studies, Essay & Comprehension
1. Write an essay on any ONE of the four topics given below in about 800
words : 80
(A) Emergence of regional parties and its effect on the federal structure of
(B) Population stabilization—India's critical need.
(C) Migration from neighbouring countries to India and its socio-economic
(D) The role of technology in coping with challenges to internal security.
2. Attempt a précis of each of the following passages in your own words,
reducing it to about a third of its present length and assigning a short
appropriate title. The précis must be written only on the special precis sheet(s)
(A) The financial expert's office was under a banyan tree : his office
furniture an old tin box. From the first pages of Mr Narayan's novel The
Financial Expert we are back in the town of Malgudi with which for nearly twenty
years we have been as familiar as with our own birthplace. We know, like the
streets of childhood, Market Road, the snuff stalls, the vendors of toothpaste,
Lawley Extension with its superior villas, the Regal Haircutting Saloon, the
river, the railway. We expect at any moment to see the Bachelor of Arts waving a
long farewell to a friend from the platform, small Swami wrapped in his
adventurous dreams coming down Market Road, Mr Sampath at the door of his
dubious film studio. It is through their friendly offices that we have been able
to meet these new—and rather doubtful—characters : Margayya, the financial
expert himself, who graduates from the banyan tree to publishing, and back to
more elaborate and more crooked banking (but how innocent is all his
crookedness); Dr. Pal, 'journalist, correspondent and author'; and Margayya's
son Balu whose progress from charming childhood to spoilt frustrated manhood is
perhaps the saddest episode Mr Narayan has written.
All Mr Narayan's comedies have had this undertone of sadness. Their gentle
irony and absence of condemnation remind us how difficult comedy is in the West
today— arce, savage, boisterous, satirical, is easy, but comedy needs a strong
framework of social convention with which the author sympathizes but which he
does not share. Miss Compton-Burnett is forced to place her stories in the
Edwardian or Victorian past; Mr Henry Green substitutes elaborate conventions of
his own for our social vacancies, so that his characters move in the kind of
dance we learnt at kindergarten—'one step forward, one step to the right, twirl
on the right toe'. But the life of Malgudi—never ruffled by politics—proceeds in
exactly the same way as it has done for centuries, and the juxtaposition of the
age-old convention and the modern character provides much of the comedy. The
astrologer is still called in to examine the horoscopes for a marriage, but now
if you pay him enough he will fix them the way you want : the financial expert
sits under his banyan tree opposite the new Central Co-operative Land Mortgage
Bank. To push away a tumbler of milk is to insult a goddess; the caste of a
great-grandfather is still of great importance, Margayya, astute about
mortgages, consumed by the modern desire for wealth and motorcars, yet consults
the priest of the Goddess Lakshmi and finds himself seeking a red lotus to pound
up in the milk drawn from a smoke-coloured cow (the forty days of prayer have
results : he becomes the owner of a pornographic manuscript called first Bed
Life or the Science of Marital Happiness but afterwards, through the caution of
the printer, Domestic Harmony). Margayya—the sad ambitious absurd financial
expert—is perhaps the most engaging of all Mr Narayan's characters. In his
ambitions for his boy, his huge dreams, his unintended villainies and his small
vanities, his domestic tenderness, he has the hidden poetry and the unrecognized
pathos we so often find in Chekov's characters who on the last page vanish into
(B) In the last decades of the twentieth century, the end of the Cold War,
the collapse of the Soviet Union, the transitions to democracy in scores
of countries, plus the significant expansion of international trade,
investment, transportation, and communication, usually labeled globalization,
profoundly changed America's external environment and had at least three major
consequences for American identity. First, the collapse of the Soviet Union and
of communism left America not only with no enemy, but also for the first time in
its history without any clear "other" against which to define itself. For over
two centuries the liberal, democratic principles of the American Creed had been
a core component of American identity. American and European observers had often
referred to this creedal component as the essence of "American exceptionalism."
Now, however, exceptionalism was becoming universalism, as democracy became more
and more accepted around the world, at least in theory, as the only
legitimate form of government. No other secular ideology existed to challenge
democracy as fascism and communism had in the twentieth century.
Second, the extensive international involvements of American business,
academic, professional, media, nonprofit, and political elites lowered the
salience of national identity for those elites, who now increasingly defined
themselves, their interests, and their identities in terms of transnational and
global institutions, networks, and causes. As we have seen, some American elites
tended to attribute greater salience to subnational identities than did the
American public. Many of these same elites also assigned greater salience to
transnational identities than did the public, which remained highly
Third, the decline in the relevance of ideology increased the importance of
culture as a source of identity. The collective counterpart to the growing
number of individuals with dual identities, dual loyalties, and dual
citizenships was the growing number and importance of diasporas. Diasporas are
cultural communities cutting across the boundaries of two or more states, one of
which is viewed as the homeland country of that community. Immigrant ethnic
groups promoting their interests within American society have been a reality
since the mid-nineteenth century. Immigrants now, however, can much more easily
maintain ties, interactions, and communications with people in their origin
country and thus see themselves as members of a diaspora. In addition, homeland
governments now view their diasporas as key sources of financial and other
support and as sources of influence on host country governments. Hence
they promote the expansion, mobilization, and institutionalization of their
diasporas. The absence of an other until 2001, the spread of democracy, the
denationalization of elites, and the rise of diasporas all blur the distinction
between national and transnational identities.
3. Study the following passages and answer the questions that follow each
(A) The power of the State is only limited internally by the fear of
rebellion and externally by the fear of defeat in war. Subject to these
restrictions, it is absolute. In practice, it can seize men's property through
taxation, determine the law of marriage and inheritance, punish the expression
of opinions which it dislikes, put men to death for wishing the region they
inhabit to belong to a different State, and order all able-bodied males to risk
their lives in battle whenever it considers war desirable. On many matters
disagreement with the purposes and opinions of the State is criminal. Probably
the freest States in the world, before the war, were America and England; yet in
America no immigrant may land until he has professed disbelief in
anarchism and polygamy, while in England men were sent to prison in recent years
for expressing disagreement with the Christian religion or agreement with the
teaching of Christ. In time of war, all criticism of the external policy of the
State is criminal.
Certain objects having appeared desirable to the majority, or to the
effective holders of power, those who do not consider these objects desirable
are exposed to pains and penalties not unlike those suffered by heretics in the
past. The extent of the tyranny thus exercised is concealed by its very success
: few men consider it worth while to incur a persecution which is almost certain
to be thorough and effective.
Universal military service is perhaps the extreme example of the power of the
State, and the supreme illustration of the difference between its attitude to
its own citizens and its attitude to the citizens of other States. The State
punishes, with impartial rigour, both those who kill their compatriots and those
who refuse to kill foreigners. On the whole, the latter is considered the graver
crime. The phenomenon of war is familiar, and men fail to realize its
strangeness; to those who stand inside the cycle of instincts which lead to war
it all seems natural and reasonable. But to those who stand outside the
strangeness of it grows with familiarity. It is amazing that the vast majority
of men should tolerate a system which compels them to submit to all the horrors
of the battlefield at any moment when their Government commands them to do so.
A French artist, indifferent to politics, attentive only to his painting,
suddenly finds himself called upon to shoot Germans, who, his friends assure
him, are a disgrace to the human race. A German musician, equally unknowing, is
called upon to shoot the perfidious Frenchman. Why cannot the two men declare a
mutual neutrality ? Why not leave war to those who like it and bring it on ? Yet
if the two men declared a mutual neutrality they would be shot by their
compatriots. To avoid this fate they try to shoot each other. If the world loses
the artist, not the musician, Germany rejoices; if the world loses the musician,
not the artist, France rejoices. No one remembers the loss to civilization,
which is equal whichever is killed.
(i) What does the author mean when he saysthat the power of the State is
absolute, subject to certain restrictions ?
(ii) What examples of America and England does the author cite to indicate the
power of the State ?
(iii) Explain the term 'graver crime' used in the second paragraph.
(iv) What are the citizens supposed to do when their government asks them to
participate in war ?
(v) Explain the term 'mutual neutrality' used in the second paragraph.
(B) It is several years now since we reached the reduction ad absurdum of
our examination system.
The leakage of question papers and the consequent postponement of
examinations, are the least disturbing of the reports in this regard that the
newspapers publish. At Fatehgarh, some time ago, the superintendent and ten
invigilators at an examination withdrew from their duties in protest against
'inadequate security arrangements.' Earlier, a mixed crowd of students and
outsiders had invaded the examination centre on the very first day of the
examination, and adopted a threatening attitude when their attempts to pass on
prepared answers to the candidates were thwarted. A day or two later a crowd
climbed the roof of the examination hall and indulged in the most unspeakable
acts of wretchedness. Many candidates were caught cheating. The news agency
added that 'the administration appeared to be reluctant to handle the situation
firmly as sons of some prominent citizens were said to be involved in these
Our examinations, instead of bringing out the best in students, seem to bring
out the worst. Everyone is agreed that the system should be reformed. But if one
may indulge in a piece of levity on so grim a theme, the situation is rather
like what Oscar Wilde said about the weather, namely, that everyone complains
about it and no one does anything about it.
The pace of reform is so unhurried as to be imperceptible. Meanwhile,
examinations on the mass scale have at best become feats of organization by the
Registrar's office, and their academic value as tests of proficiency has become
negligible. The only skills that they bring out are the ingenious ways which
candidates employ for cheating. In the High School and Intermediate examinations
of Uttar Pradesh, about 4,000 cases of the use of 'unfair means' are detected
every year. A minister of education, while deploring this, pointed out, however,
that considering the four hundred thousand that take the examinations, the
proportion of such cases cannot be considered large !
Reforms have no chance of success if they are based, as at present, on a
wholly wrong view of the malady. The two most commonly recommended reforms,
namely 'internal assessment' and 'objective tests', although they often carry
the blessings of the same experts, proceed from two opposite views in regard to
the validity of the old-fashioned type of examinations. Internal assessment is
based on the recognition that if a teacher is good enough to teach, he is also
good enough to examine his students. Objective tests, on the other hand, are
intended to eliminate the chancy and subjective element in the older methods of
academic evaluation. If the objective tests are really objective, it should make
no difference whether their source is internal or external. In fact they
eliminate the personal judgement of the teacher, and their logical evolution is
towards the machine-scored tests of the Educational Testing Service at
Princeton. These tests, like other examinations, are useful if we are clear in
our minds as to what we are testing. An academic examination should ordinarily
be expected to test the student's judgment, his powers of expression and his
memory— n that order. The trouble with our present examinations is that with the
passage of time, this order has been reversed, and the student's judgment is now
left out of account altogether. We have now reached a stage where the annual
external examination, on which so much depends, seems to the student a big
gamble. The evils of a final external examination at he end of a course have
been exaggerated. Since the American way of internal assessment and the piling
up of credits is what finds favour with reformers today, it would perhaps be
wise to have a look at what the British educator has to say about his own
It is wrong to suppose that we have to choose between internal assessment and
external examinations. We should have both. The former will ensure that the
student applies himself to his studies throughout the year, and the latter will
have the advantages that Harrison talks of. It would however be a mistake to add
internal assessment scores to the external; this may tempt institutions to
inflate the internal scores. The Education Commission suggests giving the two
separately in the student's record. To the extent that institutions establish a
name for reliability, their internal grades may protect a student from mishaps
in the external examination. The internal grades will also give the student
greater confidence and eliminate the tensions that are partly responsible for
those mishaps. As for what happens in many examination centres, from rowdyism to
murder, the cure is not examination reform, but firm handling of wrongdoers. Now
that the hooligans have discovered that they can get away with anything, an
improvement in the reliability of examinations will not induce them to desist.
Education had better conserve its energies for matters purely educational,
leaving it to the law to deal with crime.
(i) What is the significance of Oscar Wilde's complaint about the weather ?
(ii) What are the advantages recognized in the Internal assessment and Objective
test respectively ?
(iii) What is the order of priority ordinarily expected of an academic
examination to test the students ?
(iv) What is the cure, recommended in the passage, other than the examination
(v) (a) Specify the words from the passage meaning : condemning, distorted
(b) Use the following words/phrases in your own sentences : imperceptible, get
4. (A) Develop counter-arguments to the following statements in about 75
words each :
(i) MI in retail in India is a bane for a small trader.
(ii) Control of social media is an anti-democratic proposition.
(B) Write a report in about 250 words on ONE of the following :
(i) As a correspondent of a national newspaper, write a report on the impasse
in the 2012 Monsoon Session of the Indian Parliament.
(ii) Draft a report suggesting measures to encourage Water Harvesting in India.
(C) Do as directed :
(a) (i) He was very tired. He did not go out for a walk. (Combine using
(ii) As soon as the Chief guest arrived, the programme started. (Rewrite the
sentence starting with `No sooner')
(iii) Had I known you were not coming • (Complete the sentence)
(iv) It is very humid. It is better to wear cottons. (Combine these sentences
starting with `Considering')
(v) The mason is building the wall. (Change the voice)
(vi) Why couldn't you complete the work in time ? (Change the voice)
(vii) I admire her. I cannot agree with everything she does. (Combine the
sentences using 'Much')
(viii) The reason why she is absent today is because her husband is ill.
(Correct the sentence)
(ix) "Climb the mountain, cross the river and attack the enemy," said the
Commanding Officer to the soldiers. (Change the narration)
(x) The teacher said to Rakesh, "What time will the train arrive ?" (Change the
(b) Use the following phrasal verbs in sentences of your own so as to
bring out their correct meaning :
put up with
(c) Fill in the blanks with appropriate prepositions in the following
(i) The railway track runs_ the river and the road.
(ii) Since Raju was_ the influence of bad company, his parents were greatly
(iii) While walking_ the small door, she hurt her head.
(iv) Nobody dies_ a bad cold.
(v) Dr. Pandit is an authority_ Mathematics.