Sample Material of Current Public Administration Magazine
Clean India Mission
Clean India Mission is a national campaign by the Government of India,
covering 4041 statutory towns, to clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of
This campaign was officially launched on 2 October 2014 at
Rajghat, New Delhi, where Prime Minister Narendra Modi himself cleaned the road.
It is India's biggest ever cleanliness drive and 3 million government employees
and school and college students of India participated in this event.
The mission was started by Prime Minister Modi, who nominated
nine famous personalities for the campaign, and they took up the challenge and
nominated nine more people and so on (like the branching of a tree). It has been
carried forward since then with people from all walks of life joining it.
The components of the programme as listed in the SBM guidelines are:
- Construction of individual sanitary toilets (mostly pit latrines) for
households below the poverty line with subsidy (80%) where demand exists.
- Conversion of dry latrines (pit latrines without a water seal) into
low-cost sanitary latrines.
- Construction of exclusive village sanitary complexes for women providing
facilities for hand pumping, bathing, sanitation and washing on a selective
basis where there is not adequate land or space within houses and where
village panchayats are willing to maintain the facilities.
- Setting up of sanitary marts.
- Total sanitation of villages through the construction of drains, soakage
pits, solid and liquid waste disposal.
- Intensive campaign for awareness generation and health education to
create a felt need for personal, household and environmental sanitation
With effect from 1 April 1999, the Government of India restructured the
Comprehensive Rural Sanitation Programme and launched the Total Sanitation
To give a fillip to the Total Sanitation Campaign, effective
June 2003 the government launched an incentive scheme in the form of an award
for total sanitation coverage, maintenance of a clean environment and open
defecation-free panchayat villages, blocks and districts called Nirmal Gram
Effective 1 April 2012, the TSC was renamed to Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA).
On 2 October 2014 the campaign was relaunched as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.
This campaign aims to accomplish the vision of a 'Clean
India' by 2 October 2019, the 150th birthday of Mahatma Gandhi. It is expected
to cost over RS. 62000 crore (US$9.8 billion). Fund sharing between the Central
Government and the State Government and Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) is 75%:25%
(90% : 10% for North Eastern and special category states).The campaign has been
described as "beyond politics" and "inspired by patriotism".
Specific objectives are:
- Elimination of open defecation
- Conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets (a type of pit
latrine, usually connected to two pits)
- Eradication of manual scavenging
- 100% collection and processing/disposal/reuse/recycling of municipal
- A behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices
- Generation of awareness among citizens about sanitation and its linkages
with public health
- Supporting urban local bodies in designing, executing and operating
waste disposal systems
- Facilitating private-sector participation in capital expenditure and
operation and maintenance costs for sanitary facilities.
Rare Gandhi footage
A four-minute film showing rare footage of Mahatma Gandhi and his ideas on
cleanliness aired during the launch of the Swachh Bharat mission by Prime
Minister Narendra Modi .
PM Modi’s ‘Clean India’ campaign launched
Lakhs of state government employees had been asked to be part
of this massive drive which was launched by the Prime Minister in New Delhi. The
Centre had asked state governments to organise walkathons and marathons,
painting competitions and kite-flying events to create awareness on Swachchha
Bharat Abhiyan, the nationwide sanitation drive.
Swachh Bharat campaign through social media
A “clean India challenge”, almost on the lines of the ALS ice bucket
challenge that went viral across the world , unfold itself across social media
platforms . And the first person who took up the challenge was none other than
Prime Minister Narendra Modi himself.
Construction of toilets is one aspect of the Swachh Bharat
programme. The programme aims to to make India "open defecation free" by 2019.
It plans to construct 12 crore toilets in rural India by October 2019, at a
projected cost of RS. 1.96 lakh crore (US$31 billion). Prime Minister Narendra
Modi spoke of the need for toilets in his 2014 Independence Day speech stating,
"Has it ever pained us that our mothers and sisters have to defecate in open?
Poor womenfolk of the village wait for the night; until darkness descends, they
can`t go out to defecate. What bodily torture they must be feeling, how many
diseases that act might engender. Can't we just make arrangements for toilets
for the dignity of our mothers and sisters?" Modi also spoke of the need for
toilets in schools during the campaign for 2014 Jammu and Kashmir state
elections stating, "When the girl student reaches the age where she realises
this [lack of female toilets in the school] she leaves her education midway. As
they leave their education midway they remain uneducated. Our daughters must
also get equal chance to quality education. After 60 years of independence there
should have been separate toilets for girl students in every school. But for the
past 60 years they could not provide separate toilets to girls and as result the
female students had to leave their education midway."
The Government is conducting the scheme in concurrence with
the Indira Awaas Yojana, a rural housing scheme. Although, the Swachh Bharat
programme began on 2 October 2014, the government had begun constructing toilets
prior to that date. In the 12th Five Year plan (2012–17), the previous UPA
government allocated Rs. 37159 crore (US$5.9 billion) for rural sanitation under
its Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan scheme. The UPA used RS. 4724 crore (US$750 million)
of allocated funds, leaving the Modi government with RS.32435 crore (US$5.1
billion). The programme has also received funding and technical support from the
World Bank, corporations as part of corporate social responsibility initiatives,
and by state governments under the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and Rashtriya Madhyamik
Shiksha Abhiyan schemes.[As of May 2015, 14 companies including Tata Consulting
Services, Mahindra Group and Rotary International have pledged to construct
3,195 new toilets. As of the same month, 71 Public Sector Undertakings in India
supported the construction of 86,781 new toilets.
Between April 2014 and January 2015, 31.83 lakh toilets were built. Karnataka
led all States in construction of toilets under the programme, while Punjab
built the least.
Criticisms of the campaign include:
Some regard the motives of Prime Minister Modi as purely
political. The prime minister nominated people who were supposed to do some
cleaning-up. They would then nominate others, and so slowly the whole of India
would be involved. Thus, anyone seeing a participant in the scheme, especially a
celebrity, would inevitably link their actions to Modi, building up his
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is not a new programme. Launched in
1986 as the Central Rural Sanitation Programme, the scheme later became the
Total Sanitation Campaign (1999) and Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (2012). Some regard
it as merely a renaming.
There has been a problem of corruption in delivery of
facilities such as toilets and latrines since the launch of the Central Rural
Sanitation Programme (CRSP) 1986. In rural areas BDOs, GP president,
secretaries, and others take bribes from poor Indians to provide them, and the
poorest are unable to obtain them because they cannot afford the bribes.
The NIT Aayog (National Institution for Transforming India
Aayog), formerly called the Planning Commission, is accused of preparing the
guidelines of the scheme based on false reports through upward communication
from people on-site such as BDO, GP presidents and secretaries; the Chairman,
Deputy Chairman and the other members of the Planning Commission are accused of
not checking the information by visiting the villages and physically seeing and
talking with the beneficiaries face to face.
The central government is said to be irresponsible in not
ensuring that the toilets, latrines, etc. are delivered, as the Ministry of
Panchayati Raj closes grievance cases by transferring them to the state
government, and never examines the details of whether the state government
settles them correctly.
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