Sample Material of Current Public Administration Magazine
1.Accountability & Responsibility
Executive-Legislature-Judiciary are the three main organs of government in a democratic political system. They have separate functions but are interdependent and maintain a balance among themselves. Executive-Legislature-Judiciary are also called the three branches of government.
They are derived from the doctrine of separation of powers proposed by Montesquieu, a French philosopher. He believed that power should be divided among different institutions to prevent tyranny and corruption.
The Legislature is the law and policy making body. It comprises of the Parliament or the State Legislature in India. It also imposes taxes, authorizes borrowing, and prepares and implements the budget, etc.
The Executive is responsible for the effective implementation and enforcement of the laws/policies passed by the Legislature. It consists of the President, Vice- President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Attorney General, Governor and the civil servants.
The Judiciary is responsible for safeguarding the interests and the fundamental rights of the people. It also interprets the Constitution and the laws enacted by the Parliament and checks their validity. It consists of the Supreme Court, High Court and other lower courts.
These organs do not work in isolation but follow the principle of checks and balances to ensure that no organ becomes too powerful or violates the Constitution. For example, the Judiciary can review the acts of the Parliament and declare them unconstitutional if they violate any provision of the Constitution. The Executive can refuse to assent to a bill passed by the Parliament (through President's veto). The Legislature can impeach the President or remove a judge for misconduct. Executive branches are the parts of the government that are responsible for enforcing and carrying out the laws of the nation. They also implement and administer public policies, manage
public services, and conduct foreign relations.
2. Indian Government and Politics
Prime Minister Vs President
Prime minister and president are two common titles for the leaders of the executive branch of government in different countries. However, the roles and powers of these leaders may vary depending on the type of political system they belong to.
In general, a president typically is elected by the people and is separate from the country's legislative body, while a prime minister typically is a member of the legislative body who is chosen by that legislature to be its leader.
For example, in the U.S., the president is the head of state and head of government, who has the power to veto bills passed by Congress, appoint federal judges, issue executive orders, and command the armed forces. The president is elected by the Electoral College, which is based on the popular vote in each state. The president does not have to belong to any political party, but usually does.
In contrast, in the U.K., the prime minister is the head of government, who sets the national agenda, appoints cabinet officials, and governs at the behest of a party or a coalition of parties. The prime minister is elected by the members of Parliament, who are themselves elected by the people. The prime minister has to belong to a political party, and can lose office if the party loses its majority or confidence in Parliament. The head of state in the U.K. is the monarch, who is a ceremonial figure with limited powers.
India has a parliamentary system of government where the country has both a President and a Prime Minister. The President is the head of the State and is the first citizen of India and is the Constitutional head. The Prime Minister is the head of the government and is the leader of the Council of Ministers.
The relationship between the President and the Prime Minister is based on the principle of aid and advice. Article 74 of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head to aid and advise the President, who shall, in the exercise of his functions, act in accordance with such advice.
3. Economic Administration
ZBB Vs Performance Budgeting
Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) is a budgeting method that requires all expenses to be justified and approved in each new budget period, typically each year. It was developed by Peter Pyhrr in the 1970s. Performance budgeting is a budgeting method that provides the purpose and objectives for which funds are needed, costs of programs and activities proposed to accomplish those objectives, and outputs or outcomes to be produced or delivered under each program.
Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) and performance budgeting are two distinct budgeting approaches used by organizations to allocate resources and manage their finances effectively. While both methods aim to improve financial planning and decision-making, they differ in their underlying principles and implementation strategies. The key difference between zero-based budgeting and performance budgeting is that while zerobased budgeting is carried out by justifying all revenues and costs for the accounting period, performance budgeting takes into account the inputs and output per unit with the intention of efficient resource allocation. Some of the main differences between zero-based budgeting and performance budgeting are:
• Zero-based budgeting starts from scratch every time a budget is prepared, whereas performance budgeting builds on past performance and adjusts for future goals.
• Zero-based budgeting focuses on outcomes and requires each activity or program to be linked to specific objectives and benefits, whereas performance budgeting focuses on outputs and measures the quantity and quality of goods and services produced by each activity or program.
• Zero-based budgeting challenges the status quo and encourages innovation and cost reduction, whereas performance budgeting rewards efficiency and promotes accountability and transparency.
4. Current Topics
Central Secretariat Vs Cabinet Secretariat
Central Secretariat and Cabinet Secretariat are two different entities in the Indian government. They have different roles, functions, and structures.
The Central Secretariat is responsible for the policy and scheme making of the government of India. It is a collection of various ministries and departments, such as Home, Finance, Defence, External Affairs, etc. Each ministry or department is headed by a minister who is assisted by a secretary and other officials. The Central Secretariat is housed in the Secretariat Building on Raisina Hill in New Delhi. The Central Secretariat is under the charge of the President of India, who is the nominal head of state.
The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration and coordination of the government of India. It provides secretarial assistance to the Cabinet of India and facilitates smooth transaction of business between ministries and departments. It also oversees the implementation of the decisions and policies of the government. The Cabinet Secretariat is headed by the Cabinet Secretary, who is the senior-most civil servant in the country. The Cabinet Secretariat also includes various agencies such as Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), Special Protection Group (SPG), National Authority for Chemical Weapons Convention (NACWC), etc. The Cabinet Secretariat functions from the Rashtrapati Bhavan on Raisina Hill in New Delhi. The Cabinet Secretariat is under the charge of the Prime Minister of India, who is the actual head of government.
The Central Secretariat and the Cabinet Secretariat have different functions in the Indian government. Here is a summary of their main functions:
• The Central Secretariat is responsible for formulating policies and schemes for the development and welfare of the country, drafting legislation and rules, preparing and implementing the budget, answering parliamentary questions and committees, and providing technical and administrative support to the ministers and secretaries.
• The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for administering and coordinating the activities of the government, assisting the Cabinet in decision-making and policy-making, ensuring inter-ministerial coordination, ironing out differences among ministries and departments, evolving consensus through committees of secretaries, and overseeing the implementation of the decisions and policies of the government.
5. Indian Administration
Cabinet Secretary Vs Chief Secretary
Cabinet Secretary and Chief Secretary are two different positions in the Indian government. They have different roles, functions, and levels. The Cabinet Secretary is the senior-most civil servant of the Government of India. He is the head of the Cabinet Secretariat, which provides secretarial assistance to the Cabinet of India and coordinates the activities of the government. He is also the ex-officio head of the Civil Services Board, which oversees the appointments and transfers of civil servants. He is under the direct charge of the Prime Minister of India and is his chief advisor. He is not the administrative head of the Central Secretariat, which is a collection of various ministries and departments. He is not the chief of Central secretaries but only primus inter pares (first among equals). He is not the Residual Legatee at the Central level, which means he does not deal with matters that do not fall under any specific ministry or department. This function is performed by the Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister. The Chief Secretary is the senior-most civil servant of a State Government. He is the administrative head of the State Secretariat, which provides secretarial assistance to the Chief Minister and other ministers of the state. He is also the chief coordinator of the state administration and liaises with the Central Government on behalf of the state. He is under the direct charge of the Chief Minister of the state and is his chief advisor. He is also the administrative head of various departments in the State Secretariat, such as Home, Finance, Planning, etc. He is also the chief of State secretaries and supervises their work. He is also the Residual Legatee at the State level, which means he deals with matters that do not fall under any specific department or ministry.