Mains Paper 3: Environment
Prelims level: Conference of Parties, UNFCCC
Mains level: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation
The 24th Conference of Parties (CoP) of the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), that begins
tomorrow in the Polish city of Katowice.
It is the global climate forum’s most significant meet
after Paris, 2015.
If the two-week long CoP accomplishes all that is on
its table, it will have put together guidelines to operationalise the Paris
Climate Change Agreement.
This is significant because the Paris process relies
on countries to take the lead in global warming mitigation with Nationally
Determined Contributions (NDCs).
At Katowice, negotiators are slated to draft the
rulebook that is essential to ensure that the pact’s signatories are on
track to achieve their commitments.
The document will spell out how the signatories will
report their global warming mitigation efforts.
It will specify the yardsticks to chart their progress
and elucidate what cooperation will look like in terms of providing support
to countries in need of climate finance.
Key highlights of CoP
The process of drafting the rulebook has been a
The spirit of solidarity that swept the Paris summit
has been witnessed only sporadically after the landmark pact was inked.
There is no agreement within the UNFCCC on whether
rules to track progress on NDCs should be common to all or split into
differentiated versions for developed and developing countries.
Climate finance to help developing countries meet
their obligations remains a key sticking point.
Developing countries argue that the rulebook should
enjoin developed countries to report their climate financing commitments.
Such reporting is crucial to help them plan effectively for climate action,
Developed countries retort that the Paris Pact does
not have such a mandate. Matters came to a head at Bangkok in September,
when at a precursor meet to CoP 24.
The group of Like Minded Countries that includes India
and China made it clear that any progress at Katowice “will not be possible
without any positive movement on finance”.
It much has happened outside UNFCCC fora, or on its
sidelines, that offers reasons of hope.
While climate diplomats have struggled to come to an
agreement on thorny issues like tracking progress on NDCs and climate
finance, renewable energy technologies have improved and become less
expensive especially in India and China.
India and France have transcended the
developed-developing country divide to helm the International Solar Alliance
that could promote cooperation in solar technology development and further
bring down the prices of renewable energy.
At Katowice, negotiators should be guided by this
spirit of cooperation.
Q1. COP 24 held at?
D. New York
Q.1) What are the major highlights discussed in Katowice conference on Global