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(अधिसूचना "Notification") UPSC IAS Exam सिविल सेवा परीक्षा 2019

IAS EXAM

(अधिसूचना "Notification") UPSC IAS Exam सिविल सेवा परीक्षा-2019

new(अधिसूचना "Notification") UPSC IAS Exam सिविल सेवा परीक्षा-2019 (आवेदन प्राप्त करने की अंतिम तिथि : 18 मार्च 2019)

UPSC HINDI PAPERS यूपीएससी आईएएस परीक्षा पेपर Download

1. परा के लए उमीदवार अपनी पाता सुनिचत कर ल : परा के लए आवेदन करने वाले उमीदवार को यह सुनिचत कर लेना चाहए क वे परा म वेश हेत सभी पाता शत को करते ह। परा के सभी तर पर उनका वेश नधारत पाता शत को परा करने क शत के अयधीन  अनंतम होगा। उमीदवार को मा वेश प जार कए जाने का अथ यह नहं होगा क उसक उमीदवार आयोग वारा अंतम प से सुनिचत कर द गई है। उमीदवार के सरकार /यितव परण म अहक घोषत कए जाने के बाद ह मूल दतावेज के संदभ म आयोग वारा पाता क शत क जांच क जाती है।

आवेदन कैसे करे:

उमीदवार https://www.upsconline.nic.in वेबसाइट का इतेमाल करके ऑनलाइन आवेदन कर। ऑनलाइन आवेदन करने संबंधी वतत उपय तु वेबसाइट पर उपलध ह। ऑनलाइन आवेदन प भरने के लए सं त अनु देश परशट-II म दए गए ह िजह सावधानीपू वक पढ़ ल। 2.1 उमीदवार के पास कसी एक फोटो पहचान प जैसे आधार काड, मतदाता पहचान प, पैन काड, पासपोट, ाइवंग लाइसस अथवा राय/ क सरकार वारा जार कसी अय फोटो पहचान प का ववरण भी होना चाहए। इस फोटो पहचान प का ववरण उमीदवार वारा अपना ऑनलाइन आवेदन फाम भरते समय उपलध कराना होगा। उमीदवार को फोटो आईडी क एक कैन क गई कॉपी अपलोड करनी होगी िजसका ववरण उसके वारा ऑनलाइन आवेदन म दान कया गया है। इस फोटो आईडी का उपयोग भवय के सभी संदभ के लए कया जाएगा और उमीदवार को परा/ यितव परण/ एसएसबी के लए उपिथत होते समय इस पहचान प को साथ ले जाने क सलाह  जाती है।

आवेदन पत्र की भरने की अंतिम तारीख  :

ऑनलाइन आवेदन प 18 माच, 2019 को सांय 6:00 बजे तक भरे जा सकते ह। पा उमीदवार को परा  होने के तीन सताह पू व ई-वेश माण प जार कया जाएगा। ई-वेश माण प आयोग क वेबसाइट https://www.upsconline.nic.in पर उपलध होगा उमीदवार डाउनलोड कर सकते ह। डाक वारा कोई वेश माण प नहं भेजा जाएगा।

गलत उतर के लए दंड

उमीदवार यह नोट कर ल क वतुन ठ कार के न प म उमीदवार वारा दए गए गलत उतर के लए दंड (ऋणामक अंकन) दया जाएगा।

उमीदवार के मागदशन हेत सुविधा काउटर :

उमीदवार अपने आवेदन प उमीदवार आद से संबंधत कसी भी कार के मागदशन/जानकार/प टकरण के लए काय दवस म  10.00 बजे और सायं 5.00 बजे के बीच आयोग परसर म गेट ‘सी’ के नकट संघ लोक सेवा आयोग के सुवधा काउटर पर यितगत प से अथवा दरभाष 011-23385271/ 011-23381125/011-23098543 पर संपक कर सकते ह।

(स्टडी किट) UPSC सामान्य अध्ययन प्रारंभिक एवं मुख्य परीक्षा (Combo)

(स्टडी किट) UPSC सामान्य अध्ययन (GS) प्रारंभिक परीक्षा (Pre) पेपर-1

मोबाइल फोन प्रतिबंधित:

(क) जहां परा आयोिजत क जा रह है, उस परसर म मोबाइल फोन का योग (चाहे वह  ऑफ ह य ना हो), पेजर या कसी अ य कार का इलेनक उपकरण या कए जा सकने वाला डवाइस या पेन  जैसा कोई टोरेज मीडया, माट वॉच इयाद या कै मरा या लू टूथ डवाइस या कोई  उपकरण या संचार यं के प म योग कए जा सकने वाला कोई अय संबंधत उपकरण, चाहे वह बंद हो या चालूसत मना है।
(ख) उमीदवार को उनके हत म सलाह द जाती है क वे परा थल पर मोबाइल फोन/ लू टूथ सहत कोई भी तबंधत सामी न लाएं, यक इनक सु रा सुनिचत नहं क जा सकती।

उमीदवार को सलाह  जाती है क वे कोई भी  यवान/कमती सामान परा भवन म न लाएं, यक उनक सु रा सुनिचत नहं क जा सकती. आयोग इस संबंध म कसी नकसान के लए उतरदायी नहं होगा।

एफ. सं. 1/9/2018-प.1(ख)

भारत के असाधारण राजप दनांक 19 फरवर, 2019 म कामक और शण वभाग वारा काशत नयम के अनसार नीचे उिलखत सेवाओं और पद म भत के लए संघ  लोक सेवा आयोग वारा 2 जनू , 2019 को सवल सेवा परा क प्रारम्भिक  जाएगी।

(i) भारतीय प्रशासनिक सेवा

(ii) भारतीय विदेश सेवा

(iii) भारतीय पुलिस सेवा

(iv) भारतीय डाक एवं तार लेखा और वित्त सेवा, ग्रुप "क "

(v) भारतीय लेखा परीक्षा और लेखा सेवा , ग्रुप "क "

(vi) भारतीय राजस्व सेवा (सीमा शुल्क और केंद्रीय उत्पाद), ग्रुप 'क'

(vii) भारतीय रक्षा लेखा सेवा, ग्रुप 'क'

(viii) भारतीय राजस्व सेवा (आयकर), ग्रुप 'क'

(ix) भारतीय आयुध कारखाना सेवा, ग्रुप 'क' (सहायक कर्मशाला प्रबंधक , प्रशासनिक)

(x) भारतीय डाक सेवा, ग्रुप 'क'

(xi) भारतीय सिविल लेखा सेवा, ग्रुप 'क'

(xii) भारतीय रेलवे यातायात सेवा, ग्रुप 'क'

(xiii) भारतीय रेलवे लेखा सेवा, ग्रुप 'क'

(xiv) भारतीय रेलवे कार्मिक सेवा, ग्रुप 'क'

(xv) रेलवे सुरक्षा बल में ग्रुप 'क' के सहायक सुरक्षा आयुक्त के पद

(xvi) भारतीय रक्षा संपदा सेवा, ग्रुप 'क'

(xvii) भारतीय सूचना सेवा (कनिष्ठ ग्रेड), ग्रुप 'क'

(xviii) भारतीय व्यापार सेवा, ग्रुप 'क'

(xix) भारतीय कारपोरेट विधि सेवा, ग्रुप 'क'

(xx) सशस्त्र सेना मुख्यालय सिविल सेवा, ग्रुप 'ख' (अनुभाग अधर्कारी ग्रेड)

(xxi) दिल्ली , अंडमान एवं निकोबार द्वीप समूह,लक्षद्वीप , दमन व दीव एवं दादरा व नगर हवेली सिविल सेवा, ग्रुप 'ख'

(xxii) दिल्ली , अंडमान एवं निकोबार द्वीप समूह,लक्षद्वीप , दमन व दीव एवं दादरा व नगर हवेली पुलिस सेवा, ग्रुप 'ख'

(xxiii)पांडिचेरी सिविल सेवा, ग्रुप 'ख'

(xxiv)पांडिचेरी पुलिस सेवा, ग्रुप 'ख'.

UPSC 2019 अधिसूचना के लिए यहां क्लिक करें

ऑनलाइन आवेदन के लिए यहां क्लिक करें

(स्टडी किट) UPSC सामान्य अध्ययन प्रारंभिक एवं मुख्य परीक्षा (Combo)

(स्टडी किट) UPSC सामान्य अध्ययन (GS) प्रारंभिक परीक्षा (Pre) पेपर-1

Courtesy: UPSC

महत्वपूर्ण लिंक:

UPSC IAS (Pre.) Exam 2019 Notification Released - No Change in Syllabus, Age, Attempts etc.

IAS EXAM

UPSC IAS (Pre.) Exam 2019 Notification Released

1. CANDIDATES TO ENSURE THEIR ELIGIBILITY FOR THE EXAMINATION:

The Candidates applying for the examination should ensure that they fulfill all eligibility conditions for admission to examination. Their admission to all the stages of the examination will be purely provisional subject to satisfying the prescribed eligibility conditions. Mere issue of e-Admit Card to the candidate will not imply that his/her candidature has been finally cleared by the Commission. The Commission takes up verification of eligibility conditions with reference to original documents only after the candidate has qualified for Interview/Personality Test.

2. HOW TO APPLY:

Candidates are required to apply Online by using the website https://upsconline.nic.in Detailed instructions for filling up online applications are available on the above mentioned website. Brief Instructions for filling up the "Online Application Form" given in Appendix-II. 2.1 Candidate should have details of one Photo ID Card viz. Aadhaar Card/Voter Card/PAN Card/Passport/Driving Licence/Any other Photo ID Card issued by the State/Central Government. The details of this Photo ID Card will have to be provided by the candidate while filling up the online application form. The candidates will have to upload a scanned copy of the Photo ID whose details have been provided in the online application by him/her. This Photo ID Card will be used for all future referencing and the candidate is advised to carry this Photo ID Card while appearing for Examination/Personality Test.

3. LAST DATE FOR RECEIPT OF APPLICATIONS :

The online Applications can be filled up to 18th March, 2019 till 6:00 PM. The eligible candidates shall be issued an e-Admit Card three weeks before the commencement of the examination. The e-Admit Card will be made available in the UPSC website [https://upsconline.nic.in] for downloading by candidates. No Admit Card will be sent by post.

4. PENALTY FOR WRONG ANSWERS:

Candidates should note that there will be penalty (negative marking) for wrong answers marked by a candidate in the Objective Type Question Papers.

5. FACILITATION COUNTER FOR GUIDANCE OF CANDIDATES:

In case of any guidance/information/clarification regarding their applications, candidature etc. candidates can contact UPSC’s Facilitation Counter near gate ‘C’ of its campus in person or over Telephone No. 011-23385271/011-23381125/011-23098543 on working days between 10.00 hrs and 17.00 hrs.

6. MOBILE PHONES BANNED:

Government strives to have a workforce which reflects gender balance and women candidates are encouraged to apply

(a) The use of any mobile phone (even in switched off mode), pager or any electronic equipment or programmable device or storage media like pen drive, smart watches etc. or camera or blue tooth devices or any other equipment or related accessories either in working or switched off mode capable of being used as a communication device during the examination is strictly prohibited. Any infringement of these instructions shall entail disciplinary action including ban from future examinations.

(b) Candidates are advised in their own interest not to bring any of the banned items including mobile phones/pagers to the venue of the examination, as arrangement for safe-keeping cannot be assured.

7. Candidates are advised not to bring any valuable/costly items to the venue of the examination, as safe-keeping of the same cannot be assured. Commission will not be responsible for any loss in
this regard.

F. No. 1/9/2018-E.I(B) : Preliminary Examination of the Civil Services Examination for recruitment to the Services and Posts mentioned below will be held by the Union Public Service Commission on 2nd June, 2019 in accordance with the Rules published by the Department of Personnel & Training in the Gazette of India Extraordinary dated 19th February, 2019.

  1. Indian Administrative Service.

  2. Indian Foreign Service.

  3. Indian Police Service

  4. Indian P & T Accounts & Finance Service, Group ‘A’.

  5. Indian Audit and Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.

  6. Indian Revenue Service (Customs and Central Excise), Group ‘A’.

  7. Indian Defence Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.

  8. Indian Revenue Service (I.T.), Group ‘A’.

  9. Indian Ordnance Factories Service, Group ‘A’ (Assistant Works Manager, Administration).

  10. Indian Postal Service, Group ‘A’.

  11. Indian Civil Accounts Service, Group ‘A’.

  12. Indian Railway Traffic Service, Group ‘A’.

  13. Indian Railway Accounts Service, Group 'A'.

  14. Indian Railway Personnel Service, Group ‘A’.

  15. Post of Assistant Security Commissioner in Railway Protection Force, Group ‘A’

  16. Indian Defence Estates Service, Group ‘A’.

  17. Indian Information Service (Junior Grade), Group ‘A’.

  18. Indian Trade Service, Group 'A'.

  19. Indian Corporate Law Service, Group ‘A’.

  20. Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service, Group ‘B’ (Section Officer’s Grade).

  21. Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service, Group 'B'.

  22. Delhi, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Service, Group 'B'.

  23. Pondicherry Civil Service, Group 'B'.

  24. Pondicherry Police Service, Group ‘B’.

The number of vacancies to be filled on the result of the examination is expected to be  approximately 896 which include 39 vacancies reserved for Persons with Benchmark Disability Category, i.e. 8 vacancies for candidates of (a) blindness and low vision; 11 Vacancies for (b) deaf and hard of hearing; 15 Vacancies for (c) locomotor disability including cerebral palsy, leprosy cured, dwarfism, acid attack victims and muscular dystrophy; and 5 Vacancies for (e) multiple disabilities from amongst persons under clauses (a) to (c) including deaf-blindness. The final number of vacancies may undergo change after getting firm number of vacancies from Cadre Controlling Authorities. Reservation will be made for candidates belonging to Scheduled Castes. Scheduled Tribes, Other Backward Classes, the Economically Weaker Sections and Persons with Benchmark Disability in respect of vacancies as may be fixed by the Government.

As per the decision taken by the Government for increasing the access of unemployed to job opportunities, the Commission will publicly disclose the scores of the candidates (obtained in the Written Examination and Interview/Personality Test) through the public portals. The disclosure will be made in respect of only those willing candidates who will appear in the Interview/Personality Test for the Civil Service Examination and are not finally recommended for appointment. The information shared through this disclosure scheme about the non-recommended candidates may be used by other public and private recruitment agencies to appoint suitable candidates from the information made available in the public portal.

Candidates will be required to give their options at the time of Interview/Personality Test, while downloading the e-Summon Letter from the Commission's website for the interview. A candidate may opt out of the scheme also and in that case his/her details will not be published by the Commission. Besides sharing of the information of the non-recommended willing candidates of this examination, the Commission will not assume any responsibility or liability for the method and manner in which information related to such candidates is utilized by public/private organizations.

A list of Services Identified suitable for Persons with Benchmark Disability along with the Physical Requirements and Functional Classifications:

Sl.

 

No.

Name of the

 

     Service

Category(ies) for which

 

Identified

Functional

 

Classification

Physical Requirements

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

1.

Indian         Administrative

Service

(i)        Locomotor       disability including Cerebral Palsy, Leprosy Cured, Dwarfism, Acid Attack Victims

OA, OL, BA, BH, MW, OAL, CerebraPalsy,  Leprosy Cured, Dwarfism, Acid Attack Victims

S, ST, W, SE, H, RW, C

BLA, BLOA, BL

S, SE, H, RW, C

(ii) Blindness and Low Vision

LV

MF, PP, S, ST, W, L,C, RW, H, KC, BN

B

MF, PP, S, ST, W, L,C, RW, (in braille/   software) H,    KC, BN

(iii) Deaf and Hard of Hearing

FD, HH

PP, S, ST, W, L, C, RW, KC, BN

(iv)         Multiple         disability

1.

Low vision + HH

MF, PP S, ST, W, L, C, RW, H,

 

 

 

including

 

only               above               three sub-categories

 

 

KC, BN, SE

2.

OA + Low vision

MF, PP, S, ST ,W, L, C, RW, H, KC, BN, SE

OL + Low vision

Leprosy   cure  Low vision

Acid   attack   victims   + Low vision

Dwarfism + Low vision

3.

OL + Blindness

MF, PP, S, ST, W, L, C, RW (in braille/software), H, KC, BN

Dwarfism + Blindness

4.

OA + HH

MF, PP, S, ST, W, L, C, RW, H, KC, BN, SE

OL + HH

OL + Deaf

Leprosy cured + HH

Acid attack victims+ HH

Dwarfism + Deaf

Dwarfism + HH

5.

OA + Low vision + HH

MF, PP, S, ST, W, L, C, RW, H, KC, BN, SE

OL + Low vision + HH

Leprosy  cured     +  Low vision + HH

Acid   attack   victims   + Low vision + HH

Dwarfism + Low vision + HH

 

2.

Indian Foreign Service

(i) Locomotor disability including Dwarfism and Acid Attack Victims

OA, OL, OAL

S, ST, W, RW, C, MF

(ii) Visual Impairment

LV

SE, RW

(iii) Hearing Impairment

PD

H

(iv)         Multiple         disability including

only               above               three sub-categories

All mentioned in above rows

All mentioned in above rows

 

3.

Indian   Revenu Service

(i) Locomotor Disability

One Arm (OA), One Leg (OL),

S, ST, W, SE, RW, C

 

3. Eligibility Conditions: (I) Nationality

  1. For the Indian Administrative Service, the Indian Foreign Service and the Indian Police Service, a candidate must be a citizen of India.

  2. For other services, a candidate must be either:-

  • a citizen of India, or

  • a subject of Nepal, or

  • a subject of Bhutan, or

  • a Tibetan refugee who came over to India before 1st January, 1962 with the intention of permanently settling in India, or

  • a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, Burma, Sri Lanka, East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia and Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India. Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), (c), (d) and (e) shall be a person in whose favour a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India.

A candidate in whose case a certificate of eligibility is necessary, may be admitted to the examination but the offer of appointment may be given only after the necessary eligibility certificate has been issued to him/her by the Government of India.

(II) Age Limits:

(a) A candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 32 years on the 1st of August, 2019 i.e., he must have been born not earlier than 2nd August,
1987 and not later than 1st August, 1998. Necessary action to make corresponding changes in  respective Rules/Regulations pertaining to various services is being taken separately. (b) The upper age-limit prescribed above will be relaxable:

  1. up to a maximum of five years if a candidate belongs to a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe;

  2.  up to a maximum of three years in the case of candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates;

  3. up to a maximum of three years in the case of Defence Services Personnel, disabled in operations during hostilities with any foreign country or in a disturbed area and released as a consequence thereof;

  4. up to a maximum of five years in the case of ex-servicemen including Commissioned Officers and ECOs/SSCOs who have rendered at least five years Military Service as on 1st August,
    2019 and have been released;

  5. on completion of assignment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st August, 2019 otherwise than by way of dismissal or
    discharge on account of misconduct or inefficiency; or

b. on account of physical disability attributable to Military Service; or

c. on invalidment.

  1. up to a maximum of 10 years in the case of

(a) blindness and low vision;
(b) deaf and hard of hearing;
(c) locomotor disability including cerebral palsy, leprosy cured, dwarfism, acid attack victims and muscular dystrophy; (d) autism, intellectual disability, specific learning disability and mental illness; and (d) multiple disabilities from amongst persons under clauses (a) to (d) including deaf-blindness.

  1. up to a maximum of five years if a candidate had ordinarily been domiciled in the State of Jammu and Kashmir during the period from the 1st day of January, 1980 to the 31st day of December, 1989.

Note I:-Candidates belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes who are also covered under any other clauses of Rule 6(b) above, viz. those coming under the category of Ex-servicemen, persons domiciled in the State of J & K , Persons of Benchmark Disabilities [viz. (a) blindness and low vision; (b) deaf and hard of hearing; (c) locomotor disability including cerebral palsy, leprosy cured, dwarfism, acid attack victims and muscular dystrophy; (d) autism, intellectual disability, specific learning disability and mental illness; and (e) multiple disabilities from amongst persons under clauses (a) to (d) including deaf-blindness etc.] will be eligible for grant of cumulative age-relaxation under both the categories.
Note II : The details of Functional Classification (FC) and Physical Requirements (PR) of each service is indicated in this Notice which are identified and prescribed by the respective Cadre Controlling Authorities (CCAs) as per the provisions of Section 33 and 34 of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016. Only those category (ies) of disability (ies) mentioned in the Notice shall apply for the examination under Persons with Benchmark Disability (PwBD) categories.

Therefore, the candidates belonging to the Persons with Benchmark Disability categories are advised to read it carefully before applying for the examination.

Note III:-The term Ex-servicemen will apply to the persons who are defined as Ex-servicemen in the Ex-servicemen (Re-employment in Civil Services and Posts) Rules, 1979, as amended from time to time.

Note IV :-The age concession under para 3(II)(iv) and (v) will be admissible to Ex-servicemen i.e. a person who has served in any rank whether as combatant or non-combatant in the Regular Army, Navy and Air Force of the Indian Union and who either has been retired or relieved or discharged from such service whether at his/her own request or being relieved by the employer after earning his or her pension.

Note V:-Notwithstanding the provision of age relaxation under para 3 (b)(vi) above, candidates of Persons with Benchmark Disability will be considered to be eligible for appointment only if he/she (after such physical examination as the Government or appointing authority, as the case may be, may prescribe) is found to satisfy the requirements of physical and medical standards for the concerned Services/Posts to be allocated to the Persons with Benchmark Disability by the Government.

Save as provided above, the age-limits prescribed can in no case be relaxed.

The date of birth, accepted by the Commission is that entered in the Matriculation or Secondary School Leaving Certificate or in a certificate recognized by an Indian University as equivalent to Matriculation or in an extract from a Register of Matriculates maintained by a University which extract must be certified by the proper authority of the University or in the Higher Secondary or an equivalent examination certificate. These certificates are required to be submitted only at the time of applying for the Civil Services (Main) Examination. No other document relating to age like horoscopes, affidavits, birth extracts from Municipal Corporation, Service records and the like will be accepted.

The expression Matriculation/Higher Secondary Examination Certificate in this part of the Instruction include the alternative certificates mentioned above.

Note 1:-Candidate should note that only the date of birth as recorded in the Matriculation/Secondary Examination certificate or an equivalent certificate on the date of submission of application will be accepted by the Commission, and no subsequent request for its change will be considered or granted.

Note 2:-Candidates should also note that once a date of birth has been claimed by them and entered in the records of the Commission for the purpose of admission to an Examination, no change will be allowed subsequently or at any other Examination of the Commission on any grounds whatsoever.

Note 3:- The candidate should exercise due care while entering their date of birth in the online Application Form for the Preliminary Examination. If on verification at any subsequent stage, any variation is found in their date of birth from the one entered in their matriculation or equivalent Examination certificate, disciplinary action will be taken against them by the Commission under the Rules.

(III) Minimum Educational Qualifications :

The candidate must hold a degree of any of Universities incorporated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other educational institutions established by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as a  University Under Section-3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, or possess an equivalent qualification.

Note I:-Candidates who have appeared at an examination the passing of which would render them educationally qualified for the Commission's examination but have not been informed of the result as also the candidates who intend to appear at such a qualifying examination will also be eligible for admission to the Preliminary Examination. All candidates who are declared qualified by the Commission for taking the Civil Services (Main) Examination will be required to produce proof of passing the requisite examination along with their application (i.e. Detailed Application Form-I) for the Main Examination, failing which such candidates will not be admitted to the Main Examination. Such proof of passing the requisite examination should be dated earlier than the due date (closing date) of Detailed Application Form-I of the Civil Services (Main) Examination.

Note II: In exceptional cases the Union Public Service Commission may treat a candidate who does not have any of the foregoing qualifications as a qualified candidate provided that he/she has passed examination conducted by the other Institutions, the standard of which in the opinion of the Commission justifies his/her admission to the examination.

Note III: Candidates possessing professional and technical qualifications which are recognised by the Government as equivalent to professional and technical degree would also be eligible for admission to the examination.

Note IV: Candidates who have passed the final professional M.B.B.S. or any other Medical Examination but have not completed their internship by the time of submission of their applications for the Civil Services (Main) Examination, will be provisionally admitted to the Examination provided they submit along with their application a copy of certificate from the concerned authority of the University/Institution that they had passed the requisite final professional medical examination. In such cases, the candidates will be required to produce at the time of their interview original Degree or a certificate from the concerned competent authority of the University/Institution that they had completed all requirements (including completion of internship) for the award of the Degree

(IV) Number of attempts: Every candidate appearing at the examination, who is otherwise eligible, shall be permitted six attempts at the examination: Provided that this restriction on the number of attempts will not apply in the case of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes candidates who are otherwise eligible : Provided further that the number of attempts permissible to candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes, who are otherwise eligible, shall be nine. The relaxation will be available to the candidates who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates : Provided further that candidates of Persons with Benchmark Disability will get as many attempts as are available to other candidates who do not belong to Persons with Benchmark Disability of his or her community, subject to the condition that a candidate of Persons with Benchmark Disability belonging to the General Category shall be eligible for nine attempts. Necessary action to make corresponding changes in respective Rules/regulations pertaining to various services is being taken separately. The relaxation will be available to the candidates of Persons with Benchmark Disability who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable to such candidates.

Note :-

(I) An attempt at a Preliminary Examination shall be deemed to be an attempt at the Civil Services Examination.

(II) If a candidate actually appears in any one paper in the Preliminary Examination, he/she shall be deemed to have made an attempt at the Examination.

(III) Notwithstanding the disqualification/cancellation of candidature, the fact of appearance of the candidate at the examination will count as an attempt.

(V) Restrictions on applying for the examination:

(a) A candidate who is appointed to the Indian Administrative Service or the Indian Foreign Service on the results of an earlier examination and continues to be a member of that service will not be eligible to compete at this examination. In case such a candidate is appointed to the IAS/IFS after the Preliminary Examination of Civil Services Examination, 2019 is over and he/she continues to be a member of that service, he/she shall not be eligible to appear in the Civil Services (Main) Examination, 2019 notwithstanding his/her having qualified in the Preliminary Examination, 2019.
Also provided that if such a candidate is appointed to IAS/IFS after the commencement of the Civil Services (Main) Examination, 2019 but before the result thereof and continues to be a member of that service, he/she shall not be considered for appointment to any service/post on the basis of the result of this examination viz. Civil Services Examination, 2019.

(b) A candidate who is appointed to the Indian Police Service on the results of an earlier examination and continues to be a member of that service will not be eligible to opt for the Indian Police Service in Civil Services Examination, 2019.

(VI) Physical Standards: Candidates must be physically fit according to physical standards for admission to Civil Services Examination, 2019 as per guidelines given in Appendix-III of Rules for Examination published in the Gazette of India Extraordinary dated 19th February, 2019.

4. FEE:

Candidates (excepting Female/SC/ST/Persons with Benchmark Disability Candidates who are exempted from payment of fee) are required to pay fee of Rs. 100/- (Rupees One Hundred only) either by remitting the money in any Branch of State Bank of India or by using Visa/Master/RuPay Credit/Debit Card or by using Internet Banking of SBI. Applicants who opt for "Pay by Cash" mode should print the system generated Pay-in-slip during part II registration and deposit the fee at the counter of SBI Branch on the next working day only. "Pay by Cash" mode will be deactivated at
11.59 P.M. of 17.03.2019 i.e. one day before the closing date; however applicants who have generated their Pay-in- Slip before it is deactivated may pay at the counter of SBI Branch during banking hours on the closing date. Such applicants who are unable to pay by cash on the closing date i.e. during banking hours at SBI Branch, for reasons whatsoever, even if holding valid pay-in-slip will have no other offline option but to opt for available online Debit/Credit Card or Internet Banking payment mode on the closing date i.e. till 18:00 Hours of 18.03.2019.

For the applicants in whose case payments details have not been received from the bank they will be treated as fictitious payment cases and a list of all such applicants shall be made available on the Commission website within two weeks after the last day of submission of online application.

These applicants shall also be intimated through e-mail to submit copy of proof of their payment to the Commission at the address mentioned in the e-mail. The applicant shall be required to submit the proof within 10 days from the date of such communication either by hand or by speed post to the Commission. In case, no response is received from the applicants their applications shall be summarily rejected and no further correspondence shall be entertained in this regard.

All female candidates and candidates belonging to Scheduled Caste/ Scheduled Tribe/ Persons with Benchmark Disability categories are exempted from payment of fee. No fee exemption is, however, available to OBC/EWS candidates and they are required to pay the prescribed fee in full. Persons with Benchmark Disability are exempted from the payment of fee provided they are otherwise eligible for appointment to the Services/Posts to be filled on the results of this examination on the basis of the standards of medical fitness for these Services/Posts (including any concessions specifically extended to the Persons with Benchmark Disability). A candidate of Persons with Benchmark Disability claiming fee concession will be required by the Commission to submit along with their Detailed Application Form - I, a certified copy of the Certificate of Disability from a Government Hospital/Medical Board in support of his/her claim for belonging to Persons with Benchmark Disability.
NB: Notwithstanding, the aforesaid provision for fee exemption, a candidate of Persons with Benchmark Disability will be considered to be eligible for appointment only if he/she (after such physical examination as the Government or the Appointing Authority, as the case may be, may prescribe) is found to satisfy the requirements of physical and medical standards for the concerned Services/Posts to be allocated to candidates of Persons with Benchmark Disability by the Government.

Note I: Applications without the prescribed Fee (Unless remission of Fee is claimed) shall be summarily rejected.

Note II: Fee once paid shall not be refunded under any circumstances nor can the fee be held in reserve for any other examination or selection.

Note III: If any candidate who took the Civil Services Examination held in 2018 wishes to apply for admission to this examination, he/she must submit his/her application without waiting for the results or an offer of appointment.

Note IV: Candidates admitted to the Main Examination will be required to pay a further fee of Rs. 200/- (Rupees Two hundreds only).

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(The Gist of Kurukshetra) SANITATION: THE JOURNEY SO FAR [JANUARY-2019]


(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Sanitation: The Journey So Far

[JANUARY-2019]


Sanitation: The Journey So Far

The present Government’s initiative in sanitation has been hailed by the political leaders as remarkable with the resolve to make the country “open defecation free” by October 2, 2019 – a promise made by the Prime Minister just after assumption of office. The latest statistics reveal that the coverage of toilets has zoomed to 93 percent by the end of September 2018.

According to reports in the last three years, about 50 million toilets have been constructed in rural India and 3.8 million in cities and towns. Moreover 2.48 lakh villages, 203 districts and five states – Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Uttarakhand and Haryana – are now open defecation free. And it is envisaged that 450 districts in 20 states and union territories would  shortly be open defecation free. In fact, surveys undertaken show that 85 percent of toilets built under Swachh Bharat Mission are being used. Some of the states have been quite efficient in constructing toilets in the countryside. As percent the national plan.

It may be pertinent here to mention that the date of October 2 was fixed keeping in view the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi always talked of a communication approach to life and living and preserving the local environment clean and healthy was the cornerstone of his approach to make life liveable among the masses. In fact, cleanliness was advocated by him which meant keeping not just one’s house but also the neighborhood clean.

Though it is understood that 53 million toilets have been built in rural areas in the three years since the launch of Swachh Bharat, the report further pointed out, and quite rightly that “eliminating open defecation is not only about building latrines but requires adequate methods for behavioural change and sufficient water supply is a pre-requisite for the sustainable and safe use of adequate, low-cost latrines”.

The benefits of sanitation cannot be doubted. Re 1 invested in improving sanitation helps save Rs. 4.30, according to a recent study by UNICEF, which was done to estimate the cost of benefits of government’s Swachh Bharat Mission. Sharing the findings of an independent survey carried out across 10,000 rural households randomly selected across 12 states, chief of wash (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene) UNICEF India said: “in a fully open defecation free (ODF) community, considering medical costs averted, the value of time savings and for each household is Rs.
50,000 per year”.

The study of UNICEF, found the financial savings due to improved sanitation resulted in a cost benefit ratio of 430 percent on average; this means that Rs. 3 invested allows a saving of Rs. 4.3”. Whatever be the usage, the benefits are obviously the highest among poor sections of the population. The UN agency has also observed that beyond the Hundreds of thousands of toilets being built, “a genuine prioritization of behaviour change interventions is taking place”.

A major thrust has been given to the sanitation sector as also, to some extent, to the water sector. Now around 70 percent of the urban population has access to sanitation that is, safe disposal of human excreta while in rural areas the earlier figure of a mere just 20 percent, obviously due to the special thrust provided by the present government. Presently, over 55, to 60 percent of households in the country have access to sanitation facilities.

This aspect needs to be given special attention and the government’s program called the Rashtriya Swachh Ganga Mission (National Clean Ganga Mission) of cleaning the Ganga River and setting up treatment plants in the major towns to ensure that the river is not polluted may be positive steps, if action proceeds according to targets set. Similar action needs to be taken for the Yamuna River.

The government has, no doubt, come forward in a big way by providing necessary financial resources, demonstrating its political will and commitment. The private sector should also play an active role in constructing toilets in schools and educational institutions in villages and also ensure that there is water availability in these toilets. The creation of a totally sanitized environment, which has already started with the blessings of the prime minister, can become a reality not just through dedicated action of the government, but also of the private sector through active involvement of the community. ‘Swachhata Hi Seva ‘campaign was also launched to make people feel that the work of cleanliness is a service to the community. While resources are, no doubt, essential, claims only cannot yield desired results as this has to become a people’s campaign. Moreover, adequate water supply has to be taken care of as sanitation and water go hand in hand. If things are carefully planned and executed, the face of the country may change if we care for our neighbourhood and cleanliness.

At this juncture, there is need for a program of epidemiological research on environmental health impacts in the country related to water and sanitation, soil and ecology in order to create proper understanding.

The thinking and philosophy of Gandhiji would be achieved if the Swachh Bharat Program realizes the desired targets but the challenge would be to generate awareness, in a big way. There has been spectacular progress since the last 5 years, thereby fulfilling the targets but the challenge would be to generate awareness, in a big way. There has been spectacular progress since the last 5 years, to the remotest village and realizing a significant facet of Gandhian vision.

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(The Gist of Kurukshetra) FINANCIAL INCLUSION FOR RURAL YOUTH [JANUARY-2019]


(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Financial Inclusion For Rural Youth

[JANUARY-2019]


Financial Inclusion For Rural Youth

Globally, financial inclusion is considered as the most effective tool for development and well-being of all sections of the society especially, the youth. The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) recognized the role of financial inclusion in achieving 15 out of 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) which include alleviation of poverty, creation of jobs, gender equality, good health, etc. Hence, India is committed to achieve inclusive development goals (Sab Ka Saath, Sab Ka Vikas).

One of the main goals of financial inclusion is inclusive and sustainable economic growth, by freeing the poor sections of the society from the clutches of the money lenders. Remunerated savings, and an easy way to make payments and remittances. It means insurance and pensions. It means financial literacy and consumer protection. In his opinion, there are five ‘P’s to achieve this: “Financial Inclusion plays an important role in the process of inclusive growth of the poorer sections of the economy by enhancing higher disposable income of the rural households. Again  it is proved that the large scale access of financial services like credit, savings, insurance facilities and easy cash by way of ATM facility have positive impact on household consumption, self employment, poverty as well as overall well-being of the common people (Banerjee, Duflo, Glennerster & kinnan, 2013).

The Pradhan Mantri Jan-dhan Yojana (PMJDY) initiated by the government is an addition to this long term mission of financial inclusion.
The latest edition of the Global Finder (GFX), which was conducted by the World Bank in 2017, shows that 515 million adults worldwide opened an account at a financial institution of through a mobile money provider between 2014 and 2017. India’s GFX was at 35 in 2011, which increased to 80 in 2017. Interestingly, chine’s GFX too stood at 80 in 2017. This reflects a speedy improvement in financial inclusion suggesting that relevant Indian policies in the last few years worded well.

According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), financial literacy is: understanding of financial products and concepts by consumers/investors, their ability and confidence to appreciate financial risks and opportunities, capability to make informed choices, and enable them to take other effective action to improve their financial well-being.

Some Policy Initiatives of the Government:

There are various initiatives taken by the Government of India and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in the past which include: introduction of lead scheme (1969), nationalization of scheduled commercial banks (1669), regulation of interest rates on the bank loans extended to weaker sections (1972), establishment and expansion of rural credit co-operatives (1980), establishment of regional rural banks (RRBS) in (1975), nationalization of another six banks (1980), launching of Self Help Group Bank Linkage Program (SHG-BLP) in 1992, issuance of licenses to new private sector banks (1993) and implementation of PMJDY (2014) in order to achieve financial inclusion.

1. Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Vojana (PMJDV):

PMJDY is a major policy initiative of the government of India in the realm of financial inclusion, which was announced by our Hon’ble Prime Minister on August 28, 2014. The scheme offers incentives such as insurance coverage, RuPay cards, and overdraft (OD) facility apart from Direct Benefit Transfers (DBTS).

The six pillars of the PMJDV are:

● Universal access to banking services.

● Providing basic banking accounts with OD facilities and a RuPay debit card.

● Financial literacy.

● Creation of a Credit Guarantee Fund.

● Providing micro insurance.

● Providing unorganized sector pension scheme.

Financial inclusion initiative was successful with a record of 8.76 crore savings bank accounts opening within 100 days from the launch of PMJDY. However, mere opening of account is not financial inclusion. There should be a continuity and consistency in use of banking services at a reasonable cost to every citizen of the nation.

In addition to the above, the Government of India launched Make in India, Skill India, Startup India and Stand-up India with a view to building an ecosystem for sustainable economic growth, promotion of entrepreneurial opportunities, and generates large scale employment opportunities especially for the youth. The Stand-up India provides a digital platform based on 3 pillars to support enterprises among entrepreneurs from Scheduled Caste (SC), Scheduled Tribe (ST) and

Women category through:

● Handholding support.

● Providing Information on financing.

● Credit Guarantee.

2. Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA) Loans:

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector is the most vibrant and dynamic sector, promising high growth potential for the Indian economy. There are close to 51 million MSME units in the country which employ about 11.7 crore people across various sectors, constituting 40 percent of the total workforce. The MSME’s share to the total non-agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is about 37 percent and they also contribute to 43 percent of India’s exports. Most of these MSMEs are owned by people belonging to SC, ST and Other Backward Classes.

Analysis & Discussion

The progress of pradhan mantri jan-dhan yojana (PMJDY) a flagship programme in financial inclusion, is captured in the following table.

 

Type of

Banks

 

Number of Total

Beneficiaries

 

Deposits            in

Accounts

 

Number of Rupay Debit Cards issued

 

Public Sector Banks

 

26.91

 

67803.72

 

21.72

 

Regional Rural Banks

 

5.51

 

14589.20

 

3.75

 

Private Sector Banks

 

1.04

 

2421.62

 

0.97

 

Grand

Total

 

33.46

 

84,814.54

 

26.44

As per the above table, PMJDY was instrumental in mobilizing an amount of Rs.84,815 crore in the form of savings bank accounts (33.46 crore bank accounts), 26.44 crore RuPay debit cards have been issued to the beneficiaries till December 5, 2018. The Government of India’s latest initiative of issuance of license to Payments Banks is mainly to encourage micro savings and inculcate banking habits among the rural poor and the financially excluded. The postal payments bank is expected to achieve the last mile in financial inclusion given its wide office network of more than 155000 branches mainly in remote and far-flung areas. The performance of MUDRA loans during the FY 2017-18 is given below

Progress of MUDRA Loans in India

While the total number of savings bank accounts witnessed a phenomenal growth of over 20 times, savings bank deposits increased by more than 7 times during the period 2010-2018, thanks to PMJDY. Similarly, there is a healthy growth in KCCs as well as well as GCCs which shows that credit to the individual farmers picked up during the same period. Besides, banking outreach increased from 67,694 outlets to 569,547 outlets during the last 8 years, a booster dose to last mile financial inclusion.

It is essential to achieve financial inclusion in every aspect namely savings, credit, insurance, pension, remittances, and financial advisory services. This is the pathway to empower the rural youth and the financially excluded. The rural youth have to be extended proper skilling support (DDU- GKY model may follow the BRAC, Bangladesh while extending pre-placement and post-placement support to the youth and the unemployed in India. GRAC’s training program is very successful in terms of placement (close to 80%) as it conducts door to door survey, prior to commencement of the training, to identify the trades/services which are in high demand. Similarly, Grameen Bank, Bangladesh supports the unemployed and qualified graduates to start their own enterprise. Till date, it is instrumental in starting more than 100,000 micro enterprises in this way through the unemployed youth).

Financial institutions, with local control and staffed by knowledgeable local people, could be more effective at providing financial services to the excluded. Further, major policy thrust should be on encouraging more Business Correspondents (deposits), Certified Credit Counsellors (loans), Trade electronic Receivables discounting system and scope for digital lending to MSMEs, Rural Self Employment Training institutes – RSETIs (capacity building for the rural youth), and Farmers Producers Organizations (supply chain management for the farmers, artisans, and the like) in the rural India.

Imparting financial literacy and ensuring consumer protection are very important in the journey of financial inclusion since credit without skills and financial knowledge may result in debt trap for the poor. RBI and banks should coordinate with institutions such as state education boards (SEBs), central board of secondary education (CBSE), University Grants Commission (UGC), AND All India Council for technical education (AICTE), to include financial inclusion as a mandatory subject at different educational levels right from school to higher levels of education. Having developed infrastructure for financial inclusion, the next milestone should be to bring about a mindset and cultural shift among newly connected beneficiaries to derive benefits from the formal financial system by borrowing from banks and repaying loans in time. Therefore, the current need of the hour is more to do with educating people, disseminating financial and digital awareness in the society, and making the beneficiaries aware about the scope of expanding rural enterprises using their rights to borrow and duty to repay bank loans. There should be less emphasis on collaterals (bank side). In this way, we can achieve not just financial inclusion but economic inclusion too.

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(GIST OF YOJANA) Transforming Public Transport In India [JANUARY-2019]


(GIST OF YOJANA) Transforming Public Transport In India

[JANUARY-2019]


Transforming Public Transport In India

With rapid growth of population in the cities and increase in motor vehicles, the urban space in India for creation of the necessary infrastructure is shrinking every year. An average of 60,000 vehicles are sold every day in India. On the other hand, the consistent growth of population is further widening the gap between demand and supply of public transport needs. At a time when traffic in mega cities like New Delhi, Mumbai and Bengaluru is gradually is gradually slowing down the mobility, an effective public transport system like metro rail has become the core priority of urban administrations to ease the urban commutation.

Metro Rail, one of the popular mass transit modes is a form of public transport that operates on exclusive right-of-way and carries a large number of commuters in urban space. This system is operated on non-pollutant energy and is most preferable in densely populated urban spaces. Undoubtedly, the mass transit system is by far the most remarkable invention in public transport. The idea of having an exclusive transport system to provide comfortable means to commute was born out of the team emerging the idea of having an exclusive transport system to provide comfortable means to commute was born out of the then emerging issues of early urbanization in Britain, which led to the construction of underground train network in the late 19th century.

The Metros across the world have undoubtedly smoothened the public transport wherever they were introduced. Besides offering the best public transport, cities like Hong Kong and Tokyo are running Metros with operational profit. Delhi Metros too earned a spot as an operational profitable metro in the world. This success of Delhi Metro sparked a new era of Metro revolution in India. As of today, 524 kilometers of metro network is already operational in India and 620 Kilometers of network is under construction.

Traditional System: A Pollution Hazard

Large cities like Delhi and Mumbai have drastically changed over the past few decades. As predicted, the changing demography of urban space is posing complex challenges to urban administrations. One can observe that almost all major cities in the country are facing similar challenges in public transport. Unfortunately, the traditional means of public transport are outdated and carry only limited capacity. They are far from matching the growing needs of the population. Not to forget, they are also contributing to pollution and the never ending traffic woes. With people stuck in traffic, billions of productive working hours are lost every year. The stranded vehicles on roads are also intensifying the toxic emissions in the urban sphere.

Charging Urban Mobility Needs

Metro Rail is undoubtedly a landmark innovation in the public transport system. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the metro rail has completely changed the way urban mobility needs are met. But, building the metro alone does not ensure its successful operation. In order to make a system viable and reliable, we must constantly update the system to match the changing needs of commuters. The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC)’s success is owed to the countless innovative practices that were initiated in every stage of its journey.
When Delhi Metro began its operations in 2002, the global MRT sector already had advanced technology in place. In fact, we were quite late to enter the field, but, we made the best use of this delay. DMRC had an opportunity to adopt the best practices of efficient metros across the world and it did so.

Delhi Metro: Technology Survey

The trains brought in by the Delhi Metro were among the best in the world with sophisticated energy efficiency tools and they substantially improved the passengers’ convenience over three phases. Since the inception of its operations in 2002, the DMRC has been continuously improving the quality of services and added several new features to the equipments used for day-to-day operations.
For instance, the trains used by Delhi Metro in its phase-III expansion are equipped with unattended train operation mode, which enables the possibility of operating trains without drivers. With this, the Delhi Metro has joined the pool of very few highly advanced metro systems in the world. The Delhi Metro introduced the highly sophisticated ‘Communication Based Train Control (CBTC)’ system which enables headway improvement to about 90 seconds. In simple words, the CBTC system facilitates higher frequency of train operation, which subsequently helps transporting more people in busy hours. Other effective innovations include the installation of automatic screen doors on platforms which help maintain better crowd management. The LED screens installed inside the train coaches help commuters identify the destinations easily. In addition to this, announcements are made in the trains to inform commuters of current stations and next station to arrive. With such initiatives the Delhi Metro has managed to meet the high expectations of people of national capital region.

New Features

Most of the innovative ideas emerged from the changing needs and feedback of commuters. For instance, it was noticed that commuters might need to charge their laptops and phones while travelling. To facilitate this, power connections in all the 131 trains in phase-II were provided for them. Later on, USB plugins for charging facilities were also introduced.
The new rolling stock (trains) that has been acquired for Phase - III operations has many new features both in its interior as well as commuter facility points of view.

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The new features are as follows:

  •  There is a change in the look of the front cab of the trains. There is glass on the front emergency door to give it a better look.
  •  LED based lighting is used inside the trains. Presently, the rolling stock used in DMRC has fluorescent lighting.
  •  The display panels inside the trains are LED based, where graphics, public information messages and advertisements also will be aired if necessary. Currently, only the station names or messages are displayed there.
  •  The dynamic route maps have been changed to LCD technology for better understanding.
  •  The noise levels inside the trains have been reduced further from the present limit of 68 dB to 65 dB.
  •  Higher number of grab rails and grab handles have been provided for the convenience of the standing passengers.
  •  Broader gangways between the coaches provide more convenience to the commuters.

Energy Efficient Techniques

The introduction of Metro in Delhi did more than just smoothening the public transport. A large number of people in Delhi switched from private vehicles to the Metro in recent years. According to a study conducted by Central Road Research Institute, around 3,90,971 vehicles were taken off the roads after Metro started operating in Delhi. This in turn helped reduce around 5,53,203 tones of CO2 from environment every year. In fact, DMRC became the first railway project in the world to win carbon credits. The carbon credit is a permit which allows a country or organization to produce certain amount of emissions which can be traded if full allowance is not used.

Creating Awareness

The early years were more challenging for DMRC. When metro was launched, it was an alien system for many living in the close vicinity of metro stations. DMRC hed to bring a sea change in the culture through awareness campaigns to make them use the advance facilities offered in the metro. Numerous social campaigns to raise awareness on use of escalators, lifts, automatic fare collection (AFC) gates and usage of smart cards were carried out. For this, DMRC used highly engaging theatre arts such as nukkad

Nataks and puppet shows.

In the context of India, these measures taken were highly innovative. No other construction projects in the country had adopted such procedures ever before. This helped DMRC complete its phase – I of 65 kilometers of network 2 years and 9 months ahead of its schedule. Similarly, the phase – II network of 125 was completed five months ahead of the deadline. DMRC is about to complete the phase – III network soon. With this, DMRC proved to the world that such massive projects can be completed within the deadline without causing inconvenience to the public.
Unlike other public transport systems, the Delhi Metro is highly punctual. On average, 99 percent of the train trips are recorded on time and redefine the punctuality norms to 59 seconds. Currently, the Delhi Metro operates 4000 train trips every day from 6 AM to 11 PM with its 280 train sets. The trains are operated on average frequency of 2 to 3 minutes during peak hours of traffic.
Delhi Metro experiment shows that MRT system is capable of carrying large number of people from one point to another without occupying too much space for infrastructure. This system is the answer to future transport challenges that will emerge as the cities grow bigger. In future, we are going to see more successful metro projects like Delhi Metro

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(GIST OF YOJANA) Space Programmes: Spin Offs For Humanity [JANUARY-2019]


(GIST OF YOJANA) Space Programmes: Spin Offs For Humanity

[JANUARY-2019]


Space Programmes: Spin Offs For Humanity

As I am writing this article, India has launched its largest and heaviest communication satellite into orbit. It weighs nearly 6 tons and has capability to support high speed data transfer to remote parts of the country. This mission GSAT 11 will fulfill  yet another goal of ISRO’s founding father Dr Vikram Sarabhai to use high technology for the benefit of the common man. Though the India space program started nearly 20 years later than in developed countries, today it has emerged as one among six nations i.e. USA, Russia, Europe, china and Japan having total indigenous capability in building satellites for earth observation communication and scientific research as well as launch them into orbits around earth and even take them to moon or Mars. Indian launch vehicles like PSLV, GSLV have proven track record and cost effectiveness so that even developed countries are approaching ISRO for launching their satellites. While perfecting these high technology ISRO’s focus was on making use of them for the benefit of society. Direct to home transmission of TV signals, connectivity to banks and financial organizations, telemedicine, tele-education and disaster warning system are a few examples of that.
While fulfilling the dreams of the founding father of Indian space program, one has to look at what next. Space is going to be the next frontier for human exploration and presence of humans in outer space and planets is going to be the next challenge. Though USA, Russia and China have already taken a lead, India is yet to make an entry into this field. Though need for new initiatives in this field was felt nearly a decade back, the formal approval was given by the prime Minister through his 2018 Independence Day declaration that India will be having its own human space flight in 2022. This is really going to be a great technology challenge but the goal has to be met if we have to maintain our leadership position in the global scenario.

Important developments related to the human space flight are the Crew module, life support system, Crew escape system and improvement in the overall reliability of the launch vehicle. Once in orbit, the capsule will be in almost zero G condition and hard vacuum and will be subjected to heavy radiation. Creating living conditions inside the module to support human life

providing oxygen, water and food as well as waste disposal for several days needs development of innovative technologies. Training of astronauts to face zero Gas as well as high acceleration levels during launch and re-entry needs thorough understanding of behavior of human physiology and psychology as well as conditioning the astronauts by going through a series of simulated environmental tests. A branch medicine i.e. space medicine will emerge. Such facilities are not available in the country and need to be established through fresh development programmes.

Reliable Vehicles

The PSLV and GSLV have emerged as reliable satellite launch vehicles globally. That is the reason that other countries including USA, Europe and Canada are approaching ISRO for launching their satellites. Demonstrated reliability of these launchers are around 95 per cent but not adequate to carry the manned capsule. Space Shuttle had estimated reliability level of 99 percent, still NASA took the risk of sending astronauts in that. It is sad that they encountered two failures out of its 136 launches. No one will accept such level of risk now. The Space shuttle is decommissioned and further efforts are on to develop a new launch system in USA. At present the only launcher available for the free world for human space flight is Russian Soyuz rocket. Though the Chinese Long March can do such missions it is used only for their national needs. Though the GSLV KIII recently developed by ISRO can take the manned capsule weighing nearly 10 tonnes to low earth orbit, improvement of reliability of the launch system is a must before it carries human on board. The entire design and test results will have to be revisited. Designs margins have to be enhanced wherever required. More important is introduction of redundant and fail safe systems to ensure safety of the crew. This will have to be supported with adequate number of tests and simulations. Providing oxygen and maintaining the temperature within reasonable limits, shielding the external radiation of charged particles and providing waste management onboard are other new developments. After completing the orbital mission, breaking the orbit, sending the module in precise trajectory in guided manner and managing reentry heating load using appropriate ablatives and material which can withstand high temperatures require advanced materials and techniques.

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Recovery System

While all attempts will be made to have a reliable launch system there is a remote chance there could be some chance of failure. In such a case how to bring back the astronaut has to be addressed. Recently, ISRO has demonstrated a crew recovery experiment using which astronauts will be ejected from the launch system and brought back to earth in case of a mission abort the basic design of a space suit, crew module, its landing and recovery process from sea were demonstrated as part of the technology development. Development of new technologies and systems to perfect the manned mission are demanding a lot of innovation and hard work by thousands of scientists, technologists and supporting staff over the next few years. Developing space transportation system and enabling humans to stay in earth orbit for few days and bringing them back is only a small step forward, It will provide a platform for detailed observation of planet earth, scientific observation and studies of stars and galaxies Conducting chemical or biological experiments under zero G condition to generate new molecules are some of the benefits.

At the same time, people are dreaming of sending people to moon and mars with the idea of exploiting resources from the neighboring planets and even colonizing them. But it all needs not only new developments but also large funding. International cooperation, pooling the technologies and financial resources are the only way to achieve such ambitious goals. While dreaming of the future and adventurous journey in the solar system we have to worry about our planet earth. Climate change and associated change in weather, sustainable development with optimum use of natural resources and forecast of natural hazards like drought, floods, earthquake etc are some of the priority areas. India has done well in making use of earth observation satellites, IRS and pictures from meteorological satellites for meeting these requirements on a day to day basis. The recently launched hyperspectral imaging satellite is going to be a powerful tool for monitoring natural resources and supporting agriculture in a big way. As demands are growing, advanced advanced technologies are to be developed for technologies are to be developed for providing high resolution hyperspectral images on a daily basis. Most of the imaging is done in visible range.

To provide data on cloud covered regions, radar imaging techniques will have to be perfected and a constellation of Radar satellites are to be deployed. Satellite images can strengthen the security system and for continuous monitoring of sensitive regions high resolution imaging from geo stationary platform will have to be developed. Innovative solutions are to be found to combine optical and microwave images from such platform from 36000 km is required. Warnings on cyclone drought weather phenomena can be met using precision stationary satellites. But there is no proven technique for advanced warning of earthquakes. There are concepts suggesting variation in magnetic and electric field around the earth which can be monitored using satellites which give indication of eminent earthquakes but this has to be validated and a lot of efforts are required in this area.

Digital Connectivity

Today’s knowledge society is totally dependent on digital connectivity. Geostationary satellites always provided s for this. The recent launch of GSAT-II is a clear example of how space is supporting the needs of the country in this area of high speed digital connectivity. Such resources  will have to be multiplied. Advanced satellites with higher data throughput and coverage to every nook and corner of the country need new ideas and techniques. Through this, digital connectivity is assured not only to remote rural areas but also the doorstep of the poor. While access to knowledge is extended so are the services like health care through telemedicine. Today, telemedicine is limited to remote consultation but the day is not far off when even telesurgery can be done using satellite connectivity.
Today , space based services are efficient but expensive. The cost of launching satellites contribute a major share in this. If schemes are developed to recover and reuse the launch hardware considerable saving in cost can be achieved. Also, use of new propulsion systems using less expensive fuel like kerosene could bring down costs. Development of new generation launch vehicles along these lines poses several technology challenges before ISRO. One should not be lagging behind others in launch capacity. When they are targeting even 100 ton to orbit we should aim at least 20 ton in the near future.

Space research always has been fascinating and India has not lagged behind. Future challenges related to space exploration, space travel, tourism application programmes based on space assets spin off technology benefits etc are going to provide lot of opportunity to the new generation. Those who are adventurous can plunge into it and reap the benefits.

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(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Skilling Youth Through Suryamitra [JANUARY-2019]


(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Skilling Youth Through Suryamitra

[JANUARY-2019]


Skilling Youth Through Suryamitra

Employability skills are necessary for getting, keeping and being successful in a job. Skills and attitudes enable youth to make critical decisions, solve problems, develop new things and ultimately become strong ambassadors and asset for the organization. Skilling India is one of the major initiatives for creating job opportunities. It is a flagship program of the government to create 500 Million Skilled Manpower by 2020.

Renewable energy is one of these targeted sectors, and national institute of solar energy (NISE), an autonomous institute under the ministry of new & renewable energy (MNRE) is assigned with the responsibility to execute the various skill development programs throughout the country in the field of renewable energy technology. NESE is conducting “Suryamitras” training program to provide skilled technicians for installation, commissioning, operation & maintenance in the field of solar technology.

Government of India intends to achieve the target of 175 GW which includes 100 GW from solar energy by 2022. “Make In India” is an Initiative of Government to encourage multinational and domestic companies to manufacture their products in India. Suryamitra initiative is also a part of Make in India. Suryamitra program is a solar PV technician course which has been designed to develop skilled and employable workforce (suryamitras) catering to the needs of solar PV industries and EPC projects in installation, commissioning, and operation & maintenance of solar power plants and equipment, the Suryamitras should be able to perform the jobs related to design, component procurement, site survey, installation, commissioning and operation & maintenance of a  solar PV system in EPC projects. The Suryamitras are capable to take positions as SPV technicians as well a other supervisory and managerial posts in solar PV component manufacturing organizations.

The qualification required to participate in the program is ITI (Electrical & Wireman)/Diploma in Engineering (Electrical, Electronics & Mechanical). Higher qualified participants such as B.Tech etc. are not eligible. The course teaches the basics of electrical, SPV applications and solar power plant including standards, preventive maintenance, troubleshooting etc. to achieve and maintain the target of 100 GW solar power plants for 25 years, India requires about 6.5 lakh personnel, trained in solar energy sector (estimated by CII). This course is designed and oriented as per requirement of solar industry.

Suryamitras are also capable of taking assignments as entrepreneurs for self employment. The main objective of this program is to train the 10+2 passed, ITI/diploma holders/ as field technicians to execute National solar mission (NSM) program across the country. Suryamitra program is focusing to provide employability and entrepreneurship to rural and urban youth & women. MNRE set a target of 50,000 Suryamitras of skilled manpower in solar energy sector. It is funded completely by union government and is a residential program that is implemented by NISE across India. NESE is identifying a network of institutions through state nodal agencies (SNAs) to conduct training programs, arranging funds to them, and also monitor them for proper execution. Separately, NISE is also organizing Suryamitra program in its own campus.

This innovative mobile approach shall enhance the employment of trained youth in solar PV technology and also improve the businesses of solar entrepreneurs because of quality servicing, maintenance and repairing professionals are now available to customers at the click of a button on their mobiles. Under NABARD scheme of off grid solar PV system, few lakhs of off-grid solar PV system, few lakhs off-grid systems have been installed and systems do require regular maintenance. To keep the system in good condition skilled manpower is required, therefore, the proposed technical platform of Suryamitra Mobile App can be utilized for this purpose too. MNRE has an ambitious target of installing 100,000 solar PV pumps in several states. Suryamitra Mobile App would come handy with respect to operation and maintenance, repair and maintenance of solar pumps. Similarly, Millions of square meter of solar water heater systems are already installed in various states. In order to maintain the existing system and to and to install new systems properly, Suryamitra app would be very useful to serve customers at their doorsteps with quality installation, repair, and O&M services. The national institution of solar energy (NISE), an autonomous institution of ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE), is the apex national R&D institution in the field of solar energy. NISE is organizing “Suryamitra” skill development program in collaboration with state nodal agencies, at various locations across the country. The program aims to develop the skills of youth, considering the opportunities for employment in the growing solar energy power project’s installation, operation & maintenance in India and abroad. The Suryamitra program is also designed to prepare the candidates to become new entrepreneurs in solar energy sector. The Suryamitra skill Development Program are sponsored by ministry of new & renewable energy, government of India.

Suryamitra Program is of 3 months duration (600 hrs) & covers all aspects of solar PV system procurement, installation, commissioning, testing & maintenance. The course covers the syllabus as per NISE-MNRE Guidelines. To enter Suryamitra program, the candidate should be 10th pass and ITI in electrician /wireman/electronics mechanic/ fitter/ Sheet Metal, not below 18 years. During the selection of trainees, special emphasis to be  given to the persons coming from Rural Background, Unemployed Youth, Women, SC/ST candidates. Presently, there shall be 30 seats for each batch of training program. At the end of the course, proper assessment shall be made and certificates shall be issued.

The state nodal agencies of the ministry of new and renewable energy and the host institute advertise about the batches of the program including dates and the venue of the training in the print and/or electronic media. The training program is residential with a clear daily time table which would preferable include early morning physical exercise such as yoga/pt etc. the practical hours of the course are designed with for hands on exercise in the lab sites, experiments, classroom exercises, software simulations and to conduct the regular quizzes/class test and industrial visits. The host institute provides one set of uniform and an access to proper toolkits for working in the lab/site to all the session in proper uniforms only. The jacket, safety helmets and boots provide to all participants, and may be retained by the host institute after the training. No fee is charged from the trainees.

During first two months of suryamitra program, visits to medium or large industry to know power transmission, distribution, loads, cabling etc. And one visit to 33 KV substations are planned. Course covers basic electricals, electricity, energy aspects, electron theory, voltage, current, resistance, measurement units and electrical lab work. Suryamitras are trained to operate tools like pliers, nippers, hammers, hacksaw, cutters, chisels, allen keys, hand drill, drill bit, try square. Gimlet, ratchet, pipe vice bench vice, pin vice, plumb bob, centre punch, wrench, plow lamp, pipe cutter, reamer, box spanner, crimping tool, measuring tape, pulley puller, neon tester, mallet, wire stripper. Types of wires and cables, insulating materials, standard wire gauge, specifications of wires and cables, Colour Coding, low and high voltage, precautions in using cables, wire ferrules, continuity/continuity tester, megger electrical lab & yard visit are also part of the training. Course also includes generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, introduction renewable and solar energy, introduction of photovoltaic technology and its applications, components of a PV system: battery, inverter and charge controllers, fundamentals of PV system sizing, troubleshooting of PV modules, troubleshooting of batteries, inverters and charge controllers, importance of tools and its applications preparations and pre-requirements of installation of solar power plant, cable tray and cable laying: scada and control system, commissioning and maintenance, soft and entrepreneur skills.

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(The Gist of Kurukshetra) EMPOWERMENT OF RURAL YOUTH [JANUARY-2019]


(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Empowerment Of Rural Youth

[JANUARY-2019]


Empowerment Of Rural Youth

Today, population of India is more than 130 corers and 62 percent of it is below the age of 59 years. More than 65 percent of the country’s population is of the youth below the age of 35 years. This makes India the youngest country in the world. The largest section in its population comprising of vibrant youth is a clear proof that at present, India has enormous wealth in the form of youth power and dynamic human resource. Youth is the most energetic and capable period of life. While most developing countries are facing the challenge of ageing population, India’s demographic situation is very favorable in this regard.

It is estimated that by the year 2020, the population of India would have a median age of 28 years only as against 38 years for Japan. In fact, this favorable situation of demographic dividend in itself has opened the floodgate of vast opportunities for India, but to tap its full potential, it is crucial that the country’s economy has the capacity to handle this increase in labor force. Besides, youth should be equipped with appropriate education, skill, positive work attitude, the spirit of commitment and devotion for innovative contribution in the economy. But such imaginative thinking cannot lead to its realization in true sense. For this, the whole nation must show commitment for the holistic development of youth power of the country, especially in the rural areas. Only then will they be able to assess their abilities and become capable to make significant contribution towards the nation-building process. This is only possible through active and effective implementation of the programs of youth empowerment.

It is a matter of great pride that under the dynamic leadership of Shri Narendra Modi, the present government is making efforts to fully utilize this favorable demographic situation. However, the main challenge on this course is how to develop the youth population of rural areas as a dynamic, educated, trained and skilled human resource? Economists are of the view that India’s favorable demographic potential is in a position to bestow unexpected benefits to the country’s economy due to which by the year 2020
India’s favorable demographic potential is in a position to bestow unexpected benefits to the country’s economy due to which by the year 2020
India’s GDP is expected to grow by 2%. Economists also estimate that developed countries may have to face a shortage of more than 5 crore 70 lakh semi-skilled human resources while in India, there is a possibility of generation of about 4 crore 70 lakh manpower in surplus. This will not only meet the requirements of the domestic industry sector, but India will also be able to contribute significantly in meeting the demand of manpower at the global level. About 70 percent of the country’s population lives in villages and agriculture is one sector which is providing employment to the largest number of people. Despite this, the contribution of agriculture sector in the country’s gross domestic product is only 13 percent.

In post independence period, for many decades, the lack of any concrete and effective policy concerning unequal access to opportunities, education and skill training, appropriate and constructive use of the youth in the rural areas could not be achieved. It is a known fact that youth living in urban areas have better access to adequate and good opportunities for education and training as compared to the youth in rural areas. Non-NDA Governments which ruled for long in the Past, did not take any concrete steps to overcome this imbalance. As a result, only that section of rural youth, which could afford to spend or stay in cities, was able to take advantage of government schemes pertaining to youth entrepreneurship or skill-training.

The population of youth comprises about 40 percent of the total population of India. This section, besides begin the most energetic, active and ambitious, is a valuable resource for the country. The majority of our country’s population has been dependent on farming and related activities from the very beginning. It is also natural because India is a country of agrarian economy. It is another matter that the effect of modernization and industrialization has increased with the change of time. Thereby, the central government and various state governments have been focusing on promoting self-employment and skill development for the past few years. On the occasion of “National Youth Day”, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi had meaningfully said we want our young people not to seek employment, but to become employers.

In fact, empowerment of rural youth is directly related to the empowerment of villages. The faster the pace of village empowerment and the wider its scope, the empowerment of rural youth will be as comprehensive and effective. However, in present time, there is an issue that has emerged in this regard that, after getting higher education, rural youth does not want to live in village. He migrates to the cities, even though his standard of living there is much lower as compared to the village. This causes double damage to the country. On one hand, there is an unnecessary burden on the already limited infrastructure and resources of the urban area, while on the other hand, has own village becomes a victim of neglect. If that young man uses the education and skills to develop and uplift the village, it can speed up the progress of the village, suggest a new path of progress to the whole village and contribute to its prosperity.

The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Gramin has truly transformed the landscape of villages. In fact, with this massive change in the nature of villages today, there has been a significant change in the nature of the whole country. The spirit, which the Prime Minister Awas Yojana (Rural) has kindled in the rural youth to live in the village and contribute to local development by providing the rural youth housing facilities as in a city in the village itself, is praiseworthy. Rural Housing scheme has increased the pace of construction activities that led to creation of large-scale employment opportunities. Under this scheme, there is a target to build one crore houses by March 2019.

The 14th Central Finance Commission has increased the grant for village panchayats to Rs 2,00,292.20 crore for the development of villages for a period of five years which is three times the grant sanctioned by the 13th finance Commission. Gram Panchayats are expected to get almost the same amount from MGNREGA. Today, for the development of rural areas and empowering the rural youth, the Gram Panchayats have access to the funds of the central finance commission and the funding of state finance commission. Besides, the funds are also being received by gram panchayats through convergence of a number of other schemes. In this way, there is now no issue of lack of funds for the development of infrastructure in the villages. Increased flow of funds in the rural areas has helped in the economic progress of rural areas and prosperity and empowerment of the youth. There is no exaggeration in the fact that Indian villages have become stronger, more prosperous and financially more empowered than ever before and it has catalyses the empowerment of rural youth. Dependency on agriculture as a major employment avenue of rural youth has reduced, and the income of the rural households is now supplemented by activities like small scale manufacturing, construction, food processing, repair and semi-skilled or unskilled services. Agriculture clinics, agri-business centers and common service centers are also helping in the socio-economic empowerment of rural youth.

The concept of “New India” free from poverty, unemployment and corruption is intrinsic to our culture and national values, but to achieve this, every Indian will have to come forward with strong determination and willpower. Nearly half of our country’s population is dependent on agriculture or allied activities and this sector provides only partial employment. Thus, full or proper use of capable manpower in the form of rural youth is not being made. Providing skill training to such a large unskilled human resource is no less than a challenge. If efforts are made to showcase agriculture as a profitable business, a large number of educated and trained youth will be drawn to this business. For this, it is necessary to give industry status to agriculture.

In the report of the NITI Aayog on “skill Development and Productivity of the workforce”, it has been mentioned that 70% of India’s labor force inhabits the rural areas, which is dependent on low productive agricultural activities and where employment opportunities are very less. This causes decline in quality of production. The report has expressed happiness over the fact that it is through MGNREGA, efforts are being made in rural areas to coordinate laid down priorities for rural development with the training system and promotion of those non-agricultural activities which might increase the income of the rural people. Efforts are also being made to remove the difficulties arising out of seasonal fluctuations in the agriculture sector.

Through the use of new technologies, alternative crops and labour-intensive crops, the concept of high yield in minimum agricultural land, better income and satisfactory employment is being envisaged. This report also affirms that most of the rural households engaged in farming have disguised unemployment. It is such a situation in which large part of the labor force has no work or it is working in an unproductive and redundant  manner. In only a few employments, more than required workers are engaged. Such labour force should be prepared to move from direct labor to allied activities such as food processing. It is a matter of satisfaction that the government of India is giving adequate emphasis on allied activities of agriculture.

The government has implemented two-point program for making micro, small and medium enterprises and start-ups as engines of development for India. Under the first program, with the aim to improve country’s large economic indicators, emphasis was given on ease of doing business and on top to bottom improvement programs. It has benefitted all entrepreneurs especially MSMES and startups so that they can accelerate the pace of development, and mobilize employment opportunities for nearly one million Indians who emerge as labour force every month. Initiatives like introduction of goods and services tax (GST), institutional mechanism for settlement of debt relief and bankruptcy cases, liberality in FDI, strict and effective action in the case of bad debts of banks and massive investment in infrastructure have proved as life giving force for MSMES and startups. The e-market place portal’ has been launched to streamline the government procurement system. It facilitates smaller companies to bid online for government contracts on competitive rates.

On the basis of GST filing, re-classification of these units has ended the inspector rule. The reduction of corporate tax rates from 30 percent to 25 percent for companies whose annual turnover is upto rupees 250 crore has benefitted more than 6 crore MSME units. Apart from this, under long-term government purchase policy of the government of India, it is now mandatory for every central ministry/department/public sector undertaking to procure at least 20 percent of the total annual procurement of goods and services from Micro and Small Enterprises. There are 358 items which can be procured from MSMES only. In order to ensure that these enterprises have easy access to the capital, the present government has taken several measures. The government has ensured that new economic opportunities are available to all sections of society, including second and third tier towns. For instance, “Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion” has launched a startup tour program, under which a mobile van is sent to second/third tier towns to identify and promote entrepreneurial talents there.

According to the survey of the National Sample Survey Organization, 2015-16, 6the MSME sector has created approximately 11.10 crore employment opportunities. Out of these, 4 crore
97 lakh 78 thousand are in rural areas and more than 6 crore 12 lakh in urban areas. In manufacturing, there is an estimated 45 percent share of this sector while in India’s export, the share is about 40 percent. Recently, its growth has been recorded in double digits. It is clear with this, that MSME sector has helped in the empowerment of rural youth of all section.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) has played an important role in enhancing the livelihood security of families in the rural areas of the country. Under this scheme, a minimum of 100 days of guaranteed wage employment is being provided to the adult members of each rural household who wish to undertake unskilled manual labour work. MGNREGA has had substantial and positive impact on the rural economy. During the financial year 2018-19, till December 3, 2018, 165.78 crore labour days were generated and the average number of work days per household was 46. In this, participation of women was 53 percent and that of scheduled castes/scheduled tribes was 39 percent. This scheme has helped increase the agricultural productivity as well as the income of rural households.

Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana- National Rural Livelihood Mission is being implemented with the aim to improve the quality of life of seven to eight crore poor rural households in more than 647 districts, 6,559 blocks, about 238,000 village  panchayats and around 640,000 villages. Under this, special attention is being given to the rural poor families, people who carry human faecal waste, victims of human trafficking, deprived tribal groups, differently- abled and legally released bonded laborers. At least one female member of the specified rural poor family is included in self-help groups and related organizations in a time bound manner.

So far, more than 46.45 lakh Self-help Groups have been formed. The number of women members in them is about 5.27 crore. About 86,000 federations have been formed. A loan of 1.41 lakh crore has been made available to SHGs from 2014 to 2018. Under this, through introduction of the startup village entrepreneurship program (SCEP), rural poor are being supported to set up enterprises, thus bringing them out of the poverty line. During the first phase, from the year 2015 to 2019, about 1.82 lakh enterprises are to be set up in 125 blocks of 24 states to empower rural poor. This step is expected to create jobs for about 3.78 lakh rural youth. Under thes, assistance has been provided to 25,088 enterprises. Under Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gramin Kaushalya Yojana, 5.73 lakh rural youths have been trained from 2014-15 to February 2018. Out of this, 3.54 lakh youth were trained for self-employment through the years 2014-15 to February 2018-17 lakh rural youth were trained for self-employment through rural self-employment training institutes. Out of this 12.65 lakh persons got employment. During the financial year 2017-18, training was provided to
4.23 lakh people as against the target of 3.97 lakh. 3.49 lakh people were provided employment. With this, the youth of the rural areas got a good opportunity to start a small trade or restart the business once closed due to lack of funds. It is clear from all these facts and figures that the pace of development of our villages has accelerated and it has positively impacted the empowerment of youth in rural areas. The need of the hour is not only to provide rural youth education and skill training at par with international level and maintain current pace of providing them suitable employment and self-employment, but also take the pledge to enhance the momentum constantly.

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(GIST OF YOJANA) Scientific Innovations in the Service of Society [JANUARY-2019]


(GIST OF YOJANA) Scientific Innovations in the Service of Society

[JANUARY-2019]


Scientific Innovations in the Service of Society

Innovations mostly indicates advancements, however, it is important that such advancements should be novel too. This is because, at times, the advancement is more about the progression for the existing technology than having discovered something new or original. Say in case of developments being witnessed over the years in the domain of computers: a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985, the Intel 80386, which was known as 386 was replaced by a 486 microprocessor after a few years, which was a higher performance unit. Here the nature of technology almost remained the same, but the upgradation of technology was witnessed. However, if the present conventional (known as classical) system in future gets replaced by a quantum computing system, then it could be correct to conclude that a new innovation in the computing technology has occurred. This is because the processes of undertaking computations are different in classical format and quantum computing has been projected to bring in major change to the existing structures of computing processes. At present, quantum computing is at an experimental stage and it is expected that in a few years this technology could become a reality bringing in major disruption in the IT (Information Technology) sector in particular and ICT (Information and Communication Technology) sector, in general.

Historical Perspective

Actually, manifestation of various technological developments has resulted in various industrial revolutions since 17th/18th century onwards. The  beginning of the industrial revolution had British industry at the centre. Slowly, industrialization spread from Britain to other European countries like Belgium, France and Germany, and then to the United States. By the mid-19th century, industrial progress had happened mainly in Western Europe and the North and Northeast of the United States. It was the period when the United State was emerging as a major global industrial centre. In Asia, countries like Japan, and in the later part of 20th century, South Korea contributed much towards the industrial revolution. However, during the last few decades, one country that has shown remarkable progress towards industrialization is China. Countries like Israel and India are known to have made some contributions too, with Israel playing a major role in the realm of technology development.

The main features of these industrial revolutions are as follows:

  • The First Industrial Revolution: 1760 – 1840. It was a period which witnessed the emergence of steam engine, textile industry and mechanical engineering.
  • The Second Industrial Revolution: 1870 – 1914. The revolution was about emergence of railways and steel industry.
  • The Third Industrial Revolution: 1969 – 2000. Electric engine, heavy chemicals, automobiles and consumer durables made their presence felt during this period.
  • The Fourth Industrial revolution: the digital revolution, since 2000 or a few decades prior. This is an ongoing phase of this industrial revolution which has also been called as Industry 4.0. At the same time there are various other S & T innovations which are leading the progression of this Industrial Revolution.

Innovation in Various Sectors

Biology, Biotechnology, Pharmacy and Medicine are the areas which have witnessed various important innovations over the years. Particularly, all these innovations matter much to humanity because they have helped to increase the life expectancy of humans, have also found cures to various diseases and have overall assisted to make humans healthier. Invention of Penicillin during 1928 by the Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming could be considered as the beginning of the modern era of medicine. It transformed the field of medicine by its ability to cure infectious bacterial diseases. Almost seven decades later during 2001, the secret behind the complete sequence of all three billion base pairs in the human genome was discovered. The discovery of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) has totally revolutionized the field of biology and demonstrated that this discovery would help humans to resolve various challenges beyond medicine. Today, DNA profiling has major utility for confirming if people are related to each other (parenthood testing). It also helps the law enforcement agencies towards solving crimes. Apart from these important discoveries, the research on the stem cell is also an important innovation. Such cells have the unique ability to develop into specialized cell types in the body which could be used to replace cells and tissues that have been damaged or lost due to disease. In addition, various innovations in the organ donation field which assist to replace (repair) eyes, lung, heart, kidney, liver, pancreas or intestine have helped human race immensely.

A major innovation could happen when the current nuclear fusion reactors where the hydrogen isotopes tritium and deuterium are used as the fuel would be replaced by other technology. If helium-3 and deuterium could be used as fuels, then a major revolution in the energy sector is expected. The helium-3 is not available on the earth’s surface hence, at present few states are undertaking missions to Moon where helium-3 is not available in abundance. However, this entire process of getting helium-3 down could take few more decades.

Innovation in Modern Technology

For many years one of the best approaches to industrial production was considered as CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machine. This milling technology has existed since 1950s and is being used to produce significant quantities of large, heavy, precision-crafted products having applicability for commercial and industrial equipment, machines, and engines. Today, with the developments taking place in the additive manufacturing (AM) sector it is expected that a major change is at the doorstep of global manufacturing processes. This technology which is commonly known as 3D printing is a mechanism of direct digital manufacturing.

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Internet of Things

At the heart of various technological innovations over the years, lies the Internet. This is the single most technology which has helped to change the face of the world within a few years. This one innovation has actually led to various other innovations. Internet could be branded as one technology which connected the world and has changed various practices of human survival from education to healthcare to nature of doing business including financial transactions. Today, this internet is being viewed as a first setup towards a major disruption in IT and ICT. Internet 2.0 is expected to bring in major changes in the present-day setup of doing various things. Development in multiple fields of science and engineering like nano science, electronics, and sensor technologies are offering new opportunities to relate with internet differently. The idea of using internet differently and by using diverse effects (normally “thing” or “object” is viewed as any possible items in the real world that could join the communication chain) is expected to upswing to the model of Internet of Internet of Things (IoT). Generally, IoT is considered to be simply a means of connecting different sensors to a network. It is important to look at IoT over a broader canvass of numerous IT related and futuristic IT technologies. Ambient Intelligence and Cognitive Technologies are anticipated to have a major impact on the future of IT. Technologies like Fog computing, Cloud computing, Big Data and Block-chain are expected to impact the future of IoT.

The most fascinating aspect of modern S&T innovations has been its evolutionary and adaptable nature. It is important to appreciate the fact that despite being developed for a specific purpose, some technologies have witnessed modifications and have provided innovation for altogether different purposes. For example, cell phones (mobile phones) were originally developed as a unit for remote wireless communication. Since then, however, phones have been implanted with GPS chips that provide information about the device’s geographic position.
Developments in the field of outer space have been fascinating. This is one technological field, which could be said to have made major contribution towards addressing various issues of socio-economic importance. Voice and data communication in real time and offering accurate inputs for various developmental aspects and managerial issues has been the key focus of space technologies. Today, communication, navigational, remote sensing (earth observational), weather and scientific satellites actually almost fully control humans lives.

Largely, technology could be said to have evolved as a response to the various requirements of society and it is expected that the S & T innovations happening in the future too would help humans to live more peacefully and happily.

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(GIST OF YOJANA) Improving Governance In Public Systems [JANUARY-2019]


(GIST OF YOJANA) Improving Governance In Public Systems

[JANUARY-2019]


Improving Governance In Public Systems

Government agencies around the world are constantly innovating new ways of managing operations and rewarding people for innovative work. Put simply, public sector innovation involves creating, developing and implementing practical ideas that achieve a public benefit. These ideas have to be at least in part new and they have to be taken up for implementation rather than remaining simply as ideas. And, most important is that they have to be useful. Innovations are both conceptual and perceptual, and, therefore, the innovators working in various public systems should look out, interact and listen to both the persons who are delivering and receiving the services. There is a need to study the expectations, values and especially the needs of the people to put in practice the innovative practices which have been found useful.

Definition of Innovation

Public systems tend to adopt innovations which enhance service delivery, increase efficiency and ensure cost reduction. An innovation in public systems can be defined as a process/policy intervention that.

  • Improves the public service delivery.
  • Enhances the efficiency of governance structure i.e. simplifying procedures etc.
  • Improves citizen satisfaction promotes transparency and accountability.
  • Reduces the time taken for service delivery.
  • Reduces the cost without affecting the efficacy and efficiency.
  • Leverages the use of technology.

Types Of Innovations

Innovations which exist in the public domain are often overlapping and are not restricted to a particular category. However, for a better understanding, innovations in public systems may be broadly categorized under the following heads: Service innovations- intend to introduce a new service, product or improvement in the quality of an existing service or product. Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) is a mobile application developed by the national payments Corporation of India (NPCI) which enables e-payments directly through banks.

Service Delivery innovations create a new or improved way of delivering specific public service to the citizens that aim at improving accessibility, targeting user needs more accurately, bringing in simplification of procedures etc.

Common service centers (CSCS) are the access points for delivery of essential public utility services, social welfare schemes, healthcare, financial, education and agriculture services, apart from a host of business to citizen (B2C) services to citizens in rural and remote areas of the country. It is a pan-India network catering to the regional, geographic, linguistic and cultural diversity of the country, thus enabling the Government’s mandate of a socially, financially and digitally inclusive society. Administrative/Organizational Innovations target to change the hierarchical structures and administrative routines in the government Electronic national agriculture market (e-NAM) is a Pan-India electronic trading portal launched in 2016 completely funded by the Ventral Government and implemented by Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC). It creates a national network of physical mandis which can be accessed online thus enabling buyers, situate even outside the state, to participate in trading at the local level.

Policy Innovations bring about the systemic culture of nurturing fresh ideas. Best practices that have a proven record of sustainability may be incorporated and be advocated as a policy. Drafting a policy for promotion of innovations  itself is a policy innovations itself is a policy innovation. This may include incentivizing mechanism, identifying and appointing innovation officers in each department etc. among others. National policy on biofuels (2018) was first drafted by the ministry of new and Renewable Energy in 2009 but later was shifted to the ministry of petroleum and natural gas in 2017 and was finally launched in 2018. The policy encourages the use of biofuels by extending appropriate financial incentives under various categories which results in reduced import dependency, a cleaner environment, employment generation etc. the role of twelve ministries has been specified for effective implementation of biofuels program in India.
Systemic Innovations employ new or improved ways of interacting with the citizens and engage them in service design which encourages a participative approach in governance and improves the magnitude of stakeholder consultation in decision making.

India Innovation Growth Program is a public, private partnership of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India and Lockheed Martin Corporation. This initiative throws open a chance to the public to suggest innovative solutions to major societal problems. Promoting Innovations In Public Systems

Understanding opportunities and Problems

  • Begins with a prompt or trigger including problems, failures and complaints which makes innovation either possible or necessary.
  • Attune to new trends, customer demands, data or technologies and innovations that are happening elsewhere.
  • Emphasise better understanding of how people live their lives, and how services are used to help improve them.
  • Find new insights into what people need, to end up with a clearly defined problem.

Generating And Sharing Useful Ideas

  • Prioritise the areas of concern (e.g. health, education, infrastructure, water supply, sanitation, PDS etc.) which need to be addressed.
  • Identify different types and sources of data, information and knowledge that are relevant.
  • Channelize data, information and knowledge into a usable form so that it can be fully exploited to support evidence-based decision making.
  • Share information collected with wider sets of actors.

Collaborating With Like-Minded Stakeholders

  • Identify and assess the importance of key people, group of people, or institutions.
  • Define whom to involve in designing a multi-stakeholder process.
  • Understand the role of multiple stakeholders who are likely to be involved in promoting innovation. These include both direct users who take action in implementing the initiative, and other individuals who will need to be involved in supporting initiative implementation (e.g. administrators, specialists, the staff of community agencies etc.)
  • Describe the roles and responsibilities of those expected to support the long-term sustainability of innovations.
  • Sensitive/build the capacities of relevant stakeholders to develop a culture of ownership and responsibility amongst them.
  • Create a knowledge repository that facilitates the availability of information in the public domain.

Documenting Innovations

  • While documenting an innovation, the following heads shall be covered.
  • Concept and Types of innovations.
  • Skills and Tools Involved.
  • Learning based Monitoring and Evaluation

System.

  • Processes and Linkages for scaling up.
  • Change in Practices.
  • Use of new knowledge/new use of existing knowledge.

Potential challenges

The following challenges are likely to be encountered while identifying, documenting and replicating innovations:

  • Resource mobilization
  • Departmental silos and lack of convergence mechanism
  • Fading away of the innovations due to a change in the personnel
  • Lack of institutional memory
  • Transfer of ownership
  • Lack of domain expertise
  • Internal animosity between different wings of government/ organization

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Innovative Practices: High Potential for Adoption/Replication Ecological Sanitation (ECOSAN)

As the country has set out on the Swachh Bharat Mission, one of the major attributes is to end open defecation. ECOSAN, an initiative that is one of its kind, offers an economical and simple-to-use option in contrast to the conventional waste transfer methods where the human excreta and body wash water do not go waste. The toilet is in daily use and never smells. The urine is collected in a drum/pot outside the toilet for later use, and body wash water is used beneficially by diversion to the trees outside. ECOSAN toilets are much more helpful in flood-prone areas as it is completely scaled and would not result in over flow. And they are highly useful in drought-prone areas for being a remarkable alternative in the sustainable use of water. ECOSAN toilets reduce health risks due to contamination of drinking water by human waste; to prevent ground and surface water pollution, and to reuse the energy content within the human waste.

Use of Plastic waste in road construction

Disposal of plastic waste is a serious concern in India and one technological approach developed by Prof. Rajagopalan Vasudevan has been found to be very useful in utilizing plastic waste on a large scale. The salient feature of the whole process of constructing plastic roads is simple and easy and does not require any new machinery and industrial involvement. The utilization of plastic waste to improve the properties of the bituminous mix offers a very promising alternative with its bulk and eco-friendly usage. The plastic toads ensure enhanced load carrying strength, water resistance, negligible maintenance cost and reduction of bitumen consumption by 1O percent.

Urban Greening Activities By Kochi Metro Rail Limited

Kochi Metro Rail Limited (KMRL) is in the process of adding greenery to the infrastructure being created, thereby contributing to the enhanced green cover in and around Kochi. City dwellers have raised the demand for improving the greenery by the renovation of city parks and open spaces. KMRL, as part of the environmental impact assessment report, has to compensate for the trees removed during the process of project implementation by planting trees in the ratio of 1:1O. This will be complemented by the development of a green belt around the coach maintenance depot at mutton and development of a green ribbon along the 25 Km stretch of the metro. In this way, KMRL will act as a catalyst for urban greening activities to reduce the carbon footprint.

Mother tongue based-multilingual education (MTB-MLE)

MTB-MLE is an approach to address the educational challenges faced by the indigenous population. In this approach, children start learning in their mother tongue in early grades with a gradual transition to a regional language. And an international language. It contributes to
‘quality education’ as it facilitates the learning process, improves the ability to learn other languages and enables to strengthen the process of education by reaching out to grass-root levels. Establishment of Vision Centers Establishment of Vision Centers in rural villages with tele-ophthalmology connectivity with base Hospitals is an effective model to reach patients who otherwise do not have access to quality eye care. Aravind Eye Care System In Madurai (Tamil Nadu) has successfully implemented this model covering a total population of over 3 million. This model makes eye care services available for the rural population at their doorsteps thus leading to a considerable reduction of the burden of cost and in preventing avoidable blindness. Most of the problems are addressed locally at the Vision Centers, and only a minuscule number of them are referred to either a secondary or a tertiary level hospital for further management. This considerably reduces the financial burden of patients by saving their expenditure on travel, food and lost wages.

Conclusion

CIPS, being a national body established by the Government of India in 2010 as an autonomous center at ASCI, Hyderabad with a mandate to promote innovations in public system, is working with Central Ministries, State Governments, Union Territories and Not-for-profit organizations to actively promote and disseminate practices which have resulted in enhanced service delivery, increased efficiency and cost reduction. CIPS also acts as a platform for sharing and disseminating knowledge on themes of critical importance.

It is fair to conclude that innovations in public systems are indispensable and it is both  continuous process as well as a result. It is also a specific area of high importance where tools, methods and approaches are in constant evolution to facilitate identification, documentation and replication of innovations.

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(The Gist of Kurukshetra) INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AMONG RURAL YOUTH [JANUARY-2019]


(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Innovative Entrepreneurship Among Rural Youth

[JANUARY-2019]


Innovative Entrepreneurship Among Rural Youth

India has emerged as one of the leading economies of the world with an average growth rate of around 7% per annum in real gross value added at factor cost during the last decade. There has been a good economic progress in the field of manufacturing, construction, transport & communication, real estate, information technology and service sector.

The young generation of the country particularly the rural youth can play an important role in accelerating the process of growth in rural areas and thus bridging the rural-urban economic divide. In fact, youth are more creative, innovative, enthusiastic, vibrant and dynamic in nature. They have strong will-power, passion and motivation to foster economic development. While most of the developed countries of the world face the risk of an ageing workforce, India is having a favorable demographic profile. On the basis of its demographic dividend, India is poised to become  the fourth largest economy in the world after USA, China and Japan.

Government Schemes for Rural Entrepreneurship: Realising the importance of rural youth in the process of economic development, Government of India has taken various steps and launched various schemes to empower them through developing their innovative entrepreneurial skills to achieve the motive of continuous & sustainable income and employment generation in rural India. Education and training is essential and basic requirement for promoting skill- oriented enterprises in rural areas. It is necessary to provide adequate opportunities for rural youth to participate in technology based educational and training programs. In this context, Samagra Shiksha launched by Government of India aims at enhancing the learning outcomes at the school level with the use of technology to empower both taught and teacher. It encompasses previous three schemes Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan and Teacher Education by unifying the learning from pre-school to class XII. It also focuses on promoting vocational education to make it more job-oriented.

Quality of human resources in the form of skill and knowledge is crucial for economic development of a country. In order to coordinate the efforts of all stakeholders in the field of skill development & entrepreneurship, the Government of India formed Department of skill Development & Entrepreneurship on July 31, 2014 which subsequently led to the setting up of Ministry of skill Development & Entrepreneurship on November 10, 2014. In a bid to improve employability of workers, National Skill Development Mission was launched on the occasion of World Youth Skills Day in 2015. This mission aims at consolidating and coordinating the skilling efforts at the national level. The mission aims at providing formal training to nearly 400 million people across the country by 2022. Further, in order to promote employment in agri-based vocational areas in agriculture & allied sector a programme named as Skill Training of Rural Youth has been launched. It offers modular skill training opportunities to rural youths in farm and non-farm activities in accordance with the requirement of local agro-based industries.

A skill training and placement programme of the Government named as Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana was launched 25 September 2014. It occupies a unique position among the skill training programs due to its focus on the rural poor youth in the age group 15-35 years. Under this programme, it is mandatory to give minimum 160 hours of training in soft skills, functional English and computer literacy etc. to transform rural poor youth an economically independent and globally relevant workforce. Additionally, it also emphasizes on the generation of sustainable employment through post-placement tracking, retention and career progression. Presently, DDU-GKY is being implemented in 568 districts of the country. Up to 30 November 2018, over 6.36 Lakh persons have been trained and nearly 3.5 Lakh have been placed in various jobs under this scheme.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana was launched by the government of India under the National Skill Development Mission on 15th July 2015. Under this scheme, industry relevant short term skill training is provided to the youth to enable them secure a better livelihood. It is a reward based skill training scheme which provides financial incentive to the youth who successfully complete an approved skill training programme.

Another centrally sponsored project for upgrading skills & Training in Traditional Arts/ crafts for Development, popularly known as Project USTTAD has been launched by Ministry of Minority Affairs. I aim at capacity building and updating the traditional skills of master trainers/artisans belonging to minority communities, BPL families in the traditional  art/craft fields of their choice. The trainees should be between 14 to 45 years of age and at leas class V pass. The project envisages preserving and promoting the rich heritage of traditional arts & crafts like wood & bone carving, zari work, phulkari, tie & dye, gems & jewellery, patch work, embroidery, durry making and so on.

On 7th October 2017, Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Shiksha Abhiyan was launched to impart digital literacy in rural areas with the aim to empower at least one person per rural household with crucial digital literacy skills. Under this Abhiyan, rural people between the age group of 14 to 60 years are being trained without any fees to operate computers, tablet, smart phones, etc and access government e-services, undertake digital payment, compose e-mails through the use of internet. PMGSISHA is expected to make around 40% rural households in country digitally literate by March 2019.

In an endeavour to promote the culture of innovation and entrepreneurship by creating a scientific temper among the youth, Atal Innovation Mission has been set up at NITI Aayog. It aims to improve vision of the students who can enhance their creativity and transform them into innovators of the new technology. Under the mission, selected schools are provided financial aid to establish tinkering laboratories where students from class VI to XII give shape to their innovative ideas and entrepreneurial skills. In the next step, Atal Incubation Centers are established to nurture innovative start-up businesses to become a successful entrepreneur.

Succinctly, it can be concluded that, agriculture & allied sector still continue to occupy a predominant position in providing livelihood to rural population, ensuring food security and providing impetus to the growth of other sectors. Many schemes and programmes have been launched by the Government with special impetus to create scientific temper and foster the spirit of innovation among the rural youth. These schemes through their hand-holding support provide an excellent opportunity to the young rural entrepreneurs to initiate, establish and run their enterprises successfully. To conclude, rural youth are contributing enormously for sustainable development of agriculture and rural economy. With the help of various government initiatives, they will further strengthen rural development efforts of the government.

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(The Gist of Kurukshetra) GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES FOR YOUTH IN NORTH-EAST AND J&K [JANUARY-2019]


(The Gist of Kurukshetra) Government Initiatives for Youth in North-East and J&K

[JANUARY-2019]


Government Initiatives for Youth in North-East and J&K

Government has launched scores of initiatives in the field of education and youth belonging to far flung and remote regions. On one hand, government has expedited the implementation of already available existing schemes in these regions on priority; on the other hand, several innovative measures and interventions have been introduced to meet the specific needs.

North East:

Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region is coordinating central government department’s initiatives for the North East.

The Skill Ministry has planned State Skill Development Mission for few of the North Eastern States under the Chairmanship of the CM along with steering committee with industry representatives. The mission is working to train youth with the help of government it is and private agencies. Additionally State Livelihood Mission as well as NULM schemes are also being deployed to skill the youth. The areas of training identified are as follows:

  •  Hospitality
  •  Tourism – Tour operators, hotels, home stay, taxis to places of attraction etc.
  •  Nursing, Para medics
  •  Wellness and Beauty
  •  Fashion designing and garments, handloom weaving
  •  Essential technicians – Electrician,
  • Plumbing, repair of ACs, Fridge, Mobile repair etc
  •  Automobile – fitter, turner, mechanics, welding
  •  Soft skills for employability in any sector
  •  Retail Merchandising
  •  Aviation – Cabin Crew, Air Hostess, ground crew etc

Additionally, Department of North East region along with North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd is also setting up a VC fund worth Rs 100 cr to promote startups in the North-Eastern States. Early and growth stage startups in the field of IT, ITES, Food Processing, Healthcare, Tourism, Retail, Aggregation of services would get boost with this fund. Many educational reforms through SSA and RUSA have also been introduced.

DONER Ministry is also offering subsidy incentives in NER for industrial and other units generating employment. To implement the same, DONER’s assistance to North Eastern Development Finance Corporation will have a component of higher interest subsidy for such units which give more employment.

Jammu and Kashmir:

Government of India and the state government have been working together to skill youth and create livelihood opportunities for them. Few of the popular measures are enlisted: UDAAN: The special industry initiative for J&K is funded by Ministry of Home Affairs and implemented by National Skill Development Corporation. It aims to provide corporate exposure to the youth as well as provide corporate India with the talent available in the state. The scheme has received overwhelming response and is making a considerable impact on ground.

Sadbhavna: Another very successful initiative is:

Sadbhavna which is run by the Army. Under Sadbhavna, Army runs several important programmes for the youth of Jammu and Kashmir; Army Goodwill Schools which is an education initiative works to provide middle and high school level education to over one lakh students. Presently, over 14,000 students are undergoing schooling in various army run schools in the state and over 1,000 children from the state are studying in institutions outside the state through scholarship programs facilitated by the army. Army also runs National integration Tour under Sadbhavna where students get to visit other states of the country and get a first hand view of the culture of their fellow citizens. They come back motivated to become productive citizens of the country and actively leverage the growth trajectory for personal development. So far, more than 5000 people have benefited out of the 200 tours conducted under this scheme.
Army also runs vocational training centres and women empowerment centers spread across the state to provide practical skills to interested and deserving candidates. Sourced through Army’s own budget, people friendly projects are executed year after year to ameliorate the conditions of people living in far flung regions of the state. Another important and highly beneficial initiative run in Jammu and Kashmir is by Army only. Army is associated with its training partner Centre for Social Responsibility and learning and Petronet LNG runs Kashmir Super 40 initiative for coaching Jammu and Kashmir Youth for engineering entrance exams. In fact, this year Super 40 broke all previous records when 26 boys and two girls from the state cracked the IIT-JEE Mains exam
2017. Achieving a success rate of 78 percent is the result of army’s Kashmir Super 40 being at par with the best IIT coaching centers in the country. Himayat: Run under Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India’s Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gramin kaushal yojana, the scheme endeavors to train 1.24 lakh local youth of Jammu and Kashmir in job intensive vocational courses.
(The author is currently Executive Head at Rambhau Mhalgi Prabodhini, a United Nations recognized unique training and research institute for elected representative and socio-political activists.
By: Ravi Pokharna

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(GIST OF YOJANA) Contributing to a knowledge based revolution [JANUARY-2019]


(GIST OF YOJANA) Contributing to a knowledge based revolution

[JANUARY-2019]


Contributing to a knowledge based revolution

India, over the centuries has never had a dearth of great thinkers, scientists, engineers, innovators, philosophers, and artists. Indian intellectual capabilities are second to none. Our philosophy, culture, fine arts, temples and sculptures over thousands of years also bear testimony to the same.
Whenever Indians go abroad they excel. Many like Sundar Pichai, Satya Nadella and other Indians are leaders in some of the largest and most innovative countries has allowed them to realize their aspirations, convert their dreams into reality, and helped them flower and blossom to their true potential.

With over 1.3 billion people, 1.4 million schools, 10500+ engineering related institutions, 150+ million youth of India entering the workforce, we need to ensure that our youth can also realize their true potential through the creation of a vibrant ecosystem of innovation and entrepreneurship in this country.

A holistic framework

The Atal Innovation Mission has adopted a holistic framework to achieve its objectives. At the school level there is a tremendous need for creation of an innovative, problem solving mindset in the students of the high schools. These students are going to be the future of our country and we need to ensure that thousands of entrepreneurs and innovators blossom from our school educational systems.
At the university and industry levels, there are a growing number of startups thanks to several startup initiatives in the country both from the private sector as well as from the government. But there is a growing need for world class Incubators in various institutions of the country to foster and nurture start-ups enabling their success. Startups need vital access to technology labs, research capital, finance, hiring networks, etc to succeed. Incubators would help in providing this support. With 100+ smart cities identified in the country, we need to ensure world class incubators in all these smart cities.

About Atal Tinkering Labs

The word Tinkering is often associated with a garage where you use hundreds of tools in a garage to repair or fix a vehicle or even experiment with new possibilities. The very environment and atmosphere in a garage makes you apply your theoretical knowledge to practical applications and innovation.
Theoretical classroom based knowledge in the various fields of science, physics, chemistry, maths triggers the spark of curiosity in a child to acquire more of such knowledge.
Practical knowledge, access to tinkering with latest tools and technologies ignites the imagination of children as they learn to apply abstract concepts learnt in the classroom to real world solutions. It triggers a problem solving innovative mindset in the school students. This is very important for the children and youth of our country.

The world is changing at a dizzying pace. Revolutionary technological advancements are transforming the world and giving rise to new  technologies and business innovations at an exponential rate. Electronic miniaturization has enabled a computer the size of out pocket. Convergence of computing, storage and communications at incredibly lower costs has enabled new innovations like the iPhone. Robotics and artificial intelligence are driving next generation productivity and automations. 3D printers are enabling real time conceptualization, design, prototyping and manufacturing. IoT or the Internet of Things are connecting sensor technologies to man, machine, devices, mobile and satellite technologies in every industry enabling precision agriculture, water cleansing and conservation climate change controls, disaster prediction and management, driverless cars and advanced transportation systems. Big data and decision making through advanced easy-to-use tools.

Atal Incubators

The Atal Incubators initiative is to create world class incubators to support the burgeoning number of startups in the burgeoning number of startups in the country.
AIM has already launched 101 incubators to date all of which would be operational by end 2019. These incubators will provide the necessary ecosystem of access to technology labs, hiring, training, mentoring, finance, venture capital networks and corporate networks.

The long term vision is to have world class incubators in the top 10 academic and engineering institutions of every state and in every city identified as a smart city for development.

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Atal Challenges

India is the world’s largest democracy with over a billion people, with each state having different issues and problems to solve both from economic growth as well as societal needs perspectives. It is important to expose the magnitude and impact of these problems to the future innovators of the country so as to enable them to understand the enormous positive impact of solving these problems.
There is, therefore, an urgent need to incentivize relevant problem solving innovations at local, regional and national levels across the country at school, university and industry levels.
The Atal Tinkering Challenges at a school level, the Atal New India Challenges at Industry levels, the Atal Small Business Innovation and Research challenges at a national level will incentivize relevant problem solving.24 Atal New India Challenges stimulating product innovations in five sectors have been launched in areas such as drinking water and sanitation, urban housing and development, climate smart agriculture, rail safety and transportation which can have great benefit for the country. I the recently held Atal Tinkering Marathon over 35000+ students participated creating 6000+ innovations in five challenges launched nationwide. The top 100 innovations from these school students are being considered for possible conversion from prototypes into market ready products.

Long Term Goals

AIM’s future initiatives include establishment and promotion o small business innovation research and development on a national scale for accelerating innovation on a large scale in small businesses/startups/MSME sector. AIM would also collaborate in Science and Technology Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Rejuvenation (AIM STEER) of innovations in major research institutions of the country like Council of Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR), Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) and Medical Research (UCNR) aligned to national socio-economic needs.
India got left behind in the Industrial Revolution that swept the world in the last century. But India does have a unique opportunity to contribute in the knowledge based revolution that is sweeping the world today. That is why Atal Innovation Mission initiatives are so important and need to  be embraced by all. The children and youth of our country deserve it. We all need to collectively make it happen.

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(GIST OF YOJANA) Capitalizing on Technology for Farmers Welfare [JANUARY-2019]


(GIST OF YOJANA) Capitalizing on Technology for Farmers Welfare

[JANUARY-2019]


Capitalizing on Technology for Farmers Welfare

Farming is both a way of life and means to livelihood for nearly 60 percent of our population, a majority of whom are women and youth. The basic difficulties of farmers can be overcome only if integrated attention is given to pricing, procurement and public distribution. Compounding the difficulties of today, farmers are facing serious problems from climate change. The most unfavourable impact of climate change will be high temperature, wide variation in precipitation and rise in sea level. While looking at the problems of farmers there should be equal attention to the families living and cultivating in the following ecosystems: Arid zone, semi-arid dry farming areas, irrigated areas, groundwater farming and plantation crops in hilly areas. The support extended to farmers should be according to the requirements of those cultivating in above mentioned ecosystems.

The reports of the NCF clear sense of direction to shaping the future of agriculture based on farmers’ welfare. The government of India has already changed on the recommendation of NCF, the name of the Agriculture ministry to Ministry of Agriculture and farmers’ Welfare.

The progress made by our farmers in improving production and productivity is illustrated by the fact that wheat production in India has gone up from 7 million tones in 1947 to over 100 million tones in 2018. Such an impressive progress has been rendered possible due to interaction between technology has been mainly in the field of designing new plant architecture characterized by resistance to lodging and ability to transfer more of the photosynthesis to grain formation. Ever since the publication of Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance in 1865, many innovations have taken place in the effective use of genetic knowledge for improving productivity and profitability of crops. Among the innovations introduced by plant breeders, mention may be made of induced mutation, chromosome doubling through colchicines and genetic medication through the application of the new knowledge in molecular biology. Genetic modification has made it possible to transfer genes across sexual barriers. More recently, gene editing technologies have become available which can help to achieve directed mutagenesis.

Breeding helps to develop strains with a higher yield potential. However, for achieving the higher yield, we need interaction between technology and public policy. New scientific innovations, farmer’s own enthusiasm to take to new technologies are all important for achieving the desired goal of a quantum jump in production.

In more recent years, progress in technological innovation has become more rapid. What is however, important is to understand the risks and benefits associated with new technologies. As early as in 1962, Rachel Carson in her classic book titled silent spring pointed out that  pesticides including DDT can result in long-term harm because of their long residual toxicity. This is why, before taking the new technology to the field, it is important that they are assessed for their positive as potentially negative effects.
New innovations are essential to overcome new challenges like those arising from climate change. More anticipatory research will be needed to ensure that our farmers are able to increase production under conditions of rising temperature and frequent floods.

The uncommon opportunities now available for improving agriculture should be mastered. The future belongs to nations which give importance to grains rather than guns. Let me quote from a recent article by Prof PC Kesavan and me published in Current science:

Genetic engineering technology has opened up new avenues of molecular breeding. However, their potential undesirable impacts will have to be kept in view. What is important is not to condemn or praise any technology, but choose the one which can take us to the desired goal sustainably, safely and economically.

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The National commission on Farmers (NCF) which I chaired made the following goals for ensuring sustainable agriculture and food security:

  •  To improve the economic viability of farming by ensuring that farmers earn a “minimum net income”, and ensure that agricultural progress is measured by the advance made in improving that income.
  •  To mainstream the human and gender dimension in all farm policies and programs and give explicit attention to sustainable rural livelihoods.
  •  To complete the unfinished agenda in land reforms and to initiate comprehensive asset and aquarian reforms.
  •  To protect and improve the land, water, biodiversity and climate resources essential for sustained advances in the productivity, profitability and stability of major farming systems by creating an economic stake in conservation.
  •  To foster community-centred food, water and energy security systems in rural India and to ensure nutrition security at the level of every child, woman and man.
  •  To introduce measures which can help to attract and retain youth in farming by making it both intellectually stimulating and economically rewarding, by conferring the power and economy of scale to small and marginal farmers both in the production and post-harvest phases of farming.
  •  To strengthen the biosecurity of crops, farm animals, fish and forest trees for safeguarding both the work and income security of farmer families, and the health and trade security of the nation.
  •  To restructure agricultural curriculum and pedagogic methodologies for enabling every farm and home science graduate to become an entrepreneur and to make agricultural education gender sensitive.
  •  To make India a global outsourcing hub inputs needed for sustainable agriculture, and products and processes developed through biotechnology and information and communication technology.
  •  The NCF report was submitted in 2006. During the last four years, several significant decisions have been taken to improve the status and income of farmers. Some of them are:
  •  Designating the Ministry of Agriculture as Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ welfare to stress the importance of keeping farmers’ welfare as the measure of agriculture progress.
  •  Issue of Soil Health Cards (SHC) to all farmers to promote the adoption of balanced nutrition. Soil health is basic to human health. Hence the Universal Soil Health Card scheme is a very important one.
  •  Allocation of both budgetary and non-budgetary resources for promoting micro-irrigation through the Pradhan Mantra Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY).
  •  Conservation and sustainable use of indigenous breeds of cattle through a Rashtriya Gokul Mission. The prime Minister also inaugurated the First International Congress on agro-biodiversity.
  •  Promoting online trade through electronic national agriculture market which helps to bring together different agriculture markets. The creation of Gramin Agriculture Markets (GrAMs) will provide scope for direct sales to consumers in both retail and bulk form.
  •  Introduction of Agricultural Produce and Livestock Marketing Act, 2017 and Agricultural Produce and Livestock Contract Farming Services Act, 2018 supported by electronic Negotiable Warehouse Receipt (eNWR) system for increased institutional credit to the farm sector.
  •  Determination of Minimum Support Price (MSP) based on the recommendation of the NCF. Assured procurement at MSP OF more crops.
  •  Integration of protein rich pulses and nutria-rich millets into welfare programs including Public Distribution System (PDS), midday meals, ICDS etc.
  •  Increase in the income of farmers through activities like apiculture, mushroom cultivation, bamboo production, agroforestry, vermin-compost and agro-processing for generating additional jobs and income for farm families. Prime Minister has also suggested that we should develop methods by which farmers’ income can be doubled within the next five years.
  •  Setting-up several corpus funds to complete ongoing irrigation production, modernised infrastructure in dairy cooperatives and strengthen the adoption of inland and marine aquaculture.
  •  Above all, the recent announcement of remunerative price based essentially on the recommendation of NCF is a very important step to ensure the economic viability and attractiveness of farming.
  •  While the Government has ensured in its notification that from Kharif 2018 onwards, the MSP of the notified crops would be minimum of 150 to even up to 200 per cent for coarse cereals which will provide an incentive to the farmers in achieving our objective of improving the nutritional intake of our population.

Anticipatory Research in an era of Climate Change. There are several reports in the media about the bioshield function of mangrove forests along coastal areas. Mangroves have helped to save both lives and livelihoods particularly of fisher and coastal communities. The beneficial impact of mangroves has been observed by the local community on several occasions including the recent Gaja in Tamil Nadu. Earlier, the damage caused by Tsunami as well as the super cyclone in Odisha were also considerably less in mangrove rich areas. It is in recognition of the critical role of mangroves in the conservation of coastal ecosystems that the famous temple at chidambaram chose a mangrove plant (Excoecaria agallocha) as a Temple Tree.

When MSSRF was started in 1989-90, the mangrove ecosystem at Pichavaram was taken up for priority attention. Both in the Philippines, where I lived for a few years and in India, the general appreciation of the role mangroves play in both ecological and livelihood security has been little. Mangrove areas were being converted into aquaculture farms and tourist centres. This is why we started a genetic garden of mangroves at Pichavaram near Chidambaram with support from Department of Biotechnology. Considerable amount of work has been done to promote public understanding of the need for protecting the mangrove forests and extending them to all coastal areas. A Charter for Mangroves was prepared and with the help of the Government of

Japan and IITO, an International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems (ISME) was formed in 1990. It is only when natural calamities of the kind induced by cyclones occur that there is more awareness of the need to protect and propagate them. I hope the calamity caused by Gaja can be converted into an opportunity for saving coastal wetlands and more particularly mangroves.
New technologies are the basic raw material for productivity improvement. There are adequate opportunities for anticipatory research involving new technologies. We should capitalize on them to ensure the well being of farmers and farming.

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