Model Questions for UPSC PRE CSAT PAPER SET - 71
Studies of the factors governing reading development in young children have
achieved a remarkable degree of consensus over the past two decades. The
consensus concerns thecausal role of ‘phonological skills’ in young children’s
reading progress. Children who have good phonological skills, or good
‘phonological awareness’ become good readers andgood spellers. Children with
poor phonological skills progress more poorly. In particular, those who have a
specific phonological deficit are likely to beclassified as dyslexic by the time
they are 9 or 10 years old.
Phonological skills in young children can be measured at a number of
different levels. The term phonological awareness is a global one, and refers to
a deficit in recognising smaller units of sound within spoken words. Development
work has shown that this deficit can be at the level of syllables, of onsets and
rimes, or phonemes. For example, a 4-year old child might have difficulty in
recognising that a word like valentine has three syllables, suggesting a lack of
syllabic awareness. A five-year-old might have difficulty in recognising that
the odd word out in the set of words fan, cat, hat, mat is fan. This task
requiredan awareness of the sub-syllabic units of the onset and the rime. The
onset corresponds to any initial consonants in a syllable and the rime
corresponds to the vowel and to any following consonants. Rimes correspond to
rhyme in single-syllable words, and so the rime in fan differs from the rime in
cat, hat and mat. In longer words, rime and rhyme may differ. The onsets in
valentine are /v/ and /t/ and the rimes correspond to the spelling patterns
‘al’, ‘en’ and ‘me’. A six-year-old might have difficulty in recognisingthat
plea and pray begin with the same initial sound. This is a phonemic judgement.
Although the initial phoneme /p/ is shared between the two words, in plea it is
part of the onset ‘pl’ and in pray it is part of the onset ‘pr’. Until children
can segment the onset (or the rime), such phonemic judgements are difficult for
them to make. In fact, a recent survey of different developmental studies has
shown that the different levels of phonological awareness appear to emerge
sequentially. The awareness of syllables, onsets, and rimes appears to merge at
around the ages of 3 and 4, long before most children go to school. The
awareness of phonemes, on the other hand, usuallyemerges at around the age of 5
or 6, when children have been taught to read for about a year. An awareness of
onsets and rimes thus appears to be a precursor of reading, whereas an awareness
of phonemes at every serial position in a word only appears to develop as
reading is taught. The onsetrime and phonemic levels of phonological structure,
however, are not distinct. Many onsets in English are single phonemes, and so
are some rimes (e.g. sea, go, zoo).
The early availability of onsets and rimes is supported by studies that have
compared the development of phonological awareness of onsets, rimes, and
phonemes in the same subjects using the same phonological awareness tasks. For
example, a study by Treiman and Zudowski used a same/different judgement task
based on the beginning or the end sounds of words. In the beginning-sound task,
the words either began with the same onset, as in plea and plank, or shared only
the initial phoneme, as in plea and pray.
In the end-sound task, the words either shared the entire rime, as in spit
and wit, or shared only the final phoneme, as in rat and wit. Treiman and
Zudowski showed that four-and five-year-old children found the onset-rime
version of the same/different task significantly easier than the version based
on phonemes. Only the six-year-olds, who had been learning to read for about a
year, were able to perform both versions of the tasks with an equal level of
1. According to the passage which of the following statements is true?
(a) A mono-syllabic word can have only one onset
(b) A mono-syllabic word can have only one rhyme but more than one rime
(c) A mono-syllabic word can have only one phoneme
(d) All of the above
2. Which of the following is likely to emerge last in the cognitive
development of a child?
3. A phonological deficit in which of the following is likely to be
classified as dyslexia?
(a) Onset judgement
(b) Rime judgement
(c) Phonemic judgement
(d) Anyone or more of the above
4. The Treiman and Zudowski experiment found evidence to support which of
the following conclusions?
(a) At age six reading instruction helps children perform both the
same/different judgement tasks
(b) The development of onset-rime awareness precedes the development of an
awareness of phonemes .
(c) At age four to five children find onset -rime version of the same/different
task significantly easier
(d) The development of onset-rime awareness is a necessary and sufficient
condition for the development of an awareness of phonemes
The lithosphere or outer shell of the earth is made up of about a dozen rigid
plates that move with respect to one another. New lithosphere is created at
midocean ridges by the upwelling and cooling of magma from the earth’s’
interior. Since new lithosphere is continuously being created and the earth is
not expanding to any appreciable extent, the question arises: What happens to
the “old” lithosphere? The answer came in the late. 1960s as the last major link
in the theory of sea-floor spreading and plate tectonics that has revolutionised
our understanding of tectonic processes, or structural deformation in the earth
and ha: provided a unifying theme for many diverse observations, the earth
sciences. The old lithosphere is subducted, or pushed down, into the earth’s
mantle the thick shell of. redhot rock beneath the earth’s thin, cooler crust
and abo.ve its metallic(partly melted) core. As the formerly rigid plate
descends, it slowly heats up and over period of millions of years, it is
absorbed into the general circulation of the earth’s mantle. The subduction of
the lithosphere is perhaps the most significant phenomenon in global tectonics.
Subduction no only explains what happens to old lithosphere but also accounts
for many of the geologic processes that shape the earth’s surface. Most of the’
world’s volcanoes anti earthquakes are associated with descending lithospheric
plates. The prominent island arcs-chains of islands such a the Aleutians, the
Kuriles, the Marianas, and the islands (Japan-are surface expressions of the
subduction process The deepest trenches of the world’s oceans, including the
Java and Tonga trenches and all others associated wit island arcs, mark the
seaward boundary of subduction zones. Major mountain belts, such as the Andes
and the Himalayas, have resulted from the convergence an subduction of
lithospheric plates. To understand the subduction process, it is necessary to
look at the thermal regime of the earth. The temperature within the earth at
first increase rapidly with depth reaching about 1,200 degrees Celsius at a
depth of 100 kilometres. Then they increase more g phases, or more compact
crystal structures, as they are subjected to higher pressure during descent.
Finally, heat is generated by friction, shear tresses and the dissipation
of viscous motions atboundaries between the moving lithospheric plate and
1 surrounding mantle. Among all these sources, the first a fourth contribute
the most toward the heating of 1 descending lithosphere.
5. According to the passage, which of the following statements is/are true
of the earth’s mantle?
I. It is in a state of flux.
II. Its temperature far exceeds that of the lithosphere.
III. It eventually incorporates the subducted lithosphere.
(a) I only
(b) I and III
(c) II only
(d) I, II and III