(Administrative Report Mains Exam 2013) V. T. Krishnamachari Committee (1962) "Part-2"

TOPIC OF IAS MAINS EXAMINATION 2013

V. T. KRISHNAMACHARI COMMITTEE ON INDIAN AND STATE ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES AND PROBLEMS OF DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION(1962) "PART – II"

PROBLEMS OF ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT AT THE VILLAGE, BLOCK AND DISTRICT LEVELS

Plans of development at different levels within the district comprise activities which influence intimately the well being of nearly '360 millions of people living in the rural areas. In recommending the establishment of a nation-wide extension service on a permanent basis the Grow More Food Enquiry Committee (1952) and the Planning Commission stressed the importance of establishing a well organised democratic structure of administration within the district -for meeting the demands of a welfare State.

At the present stage of development it is specially necessary that village panchayats, panchayat samitis and zila parishads should be built up as institutions carrying out the policies embodied in the Plan and laid down by State Governments with the approval of State legislatures and implementing the community development and other programmes in the respective areas with the maximum co-operation of the people.

While affirming the objective of introducing a democratic-structure of administration within the district above the village level, the National Development Council approved the proposals of the Planning Commission that the democratic structure in the district should be built on the foundation of the village panchayat and the village cooperative; democratic institutions at the district, block and village level should form a connected structure of administration; that while the overall responsibilities for administration, finance and planning will continue to vest in the Static Government the responsibility for local planning and implementation should devolve on the democratic bodies within the district. The State Five Year Plans as well as the Annual Plan should be broken up into district and block plans and in relation to these each• village should have its own ,development plan.

The principal duties which have .to be undertaken within the district and which, in turn, raise a variety of administrative and other problems are:

(1) preparation and implementation of village agricultural production plans and plans for basic minimum amenities for the village based on full utilisation of manpower and other resources and also on the obligations
of beneficiaries in respect of irrigation and soil conservation, etc;
(2) preparation and implementation of block development plans;
(3) preparation and implementation of district development plans;
(4) assisting in the implementation of land reform programmes, assisting the economically weaker sections of the village community, developing cooperatives and rural industries, and developing facilities for education, adult literacy, rural-sanitation, etc.

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Panchayati Raj institutions are meant for the fulfilment of the fundamental objectives of the community development movement. Scientific agriculture is the core of the entire community development programme-the foundation on which it rests. Compulsory education for boys and girls in the age group 6 to 11 which will 'become- effective by 1966 and which will be extended to the age of 14 by 1971 is a vital factor in the transformation of rural life sought to be achieved through the programme. The success of democratic planning depends on the willing acceptance of its objectives by the millions, of small farmers in the country and their active participation as well as the capacity of the extension agency to render assistance to every family for the production programmes in the shortest possible time. Taking the district wise and block wise break up of the States Five Year Plan, the rural plans for the rest of the Plan period should be worked out for districts, block and villages. The starting point is the village plan. This should be prepared after detailed discussions with the people and the panchayats and cooperatives. The plan is a record of two sets of obligations-one on the part of the governmental and cooperative agencies for the supplies, services and 'Credit -that will be made available by them and the other on the part of the villages regarding the carrying out of their customary obligations in regard to irrigation, afforestation and soil conservation programmes, the full use of the irrigation and other facilities available their contribution in labour and money for works programmes and for building up community development assets, and the deposits: they will make in the cooperatives from their own resources from year to year. The village plan should be prepared after detailed discussions with the people regarding these obligations. After the village plans are framed in this manner the panchayats and cooperatives with the help of the village level workers and the block official and non-official agencies should see to the implementation of the programmes of improvements by the families.

In the preparation of village plans, the gram sabha will have to. be fully associated and there has to be closest cooperation between the village panchayat and the village cooperative. The village production plans are the essential foundation for the success of the Panchayati Raj. The role of the block as a unit of planning and development has been recognised for some years and the fields in which the minimum programmes should be drawn up at the block level and implemented in a coordinated manner have been indicated.

The block plans will comprise the village plans viewed as a. whole and coordinated; and in addition, programmes for which the block is directly responsible. Items to be included in the block development plans are indicated in this -paragraph. The block development officers and the technical specialists at the block level should function together as well knit team to assist and advise the panchayat samiti and its standing committee in working out technically sound block and village plans and to execute these efficiently and impartially in accordance with the laws and rules. The responsibilities of officials have to be clearly defined and enforced.Development plans at the district level are made up in part of programmes included in the block development plans and in part comprise programmes which cover wider areas than the individual blocks or are executed by an agency at a level higher than the block .Since the district and block development plans are interdependent, the zila parishad should set the tone for the development work for the district as a whole-lay down priorities, establish correct working relationships between the technical and administrative services and the elected representatives at each level, draw cooperative and voluntary organisation fully into the common effort, and ensure coordination between development activities in development blocks.

Though in the legislation the responsibilities are Set out in general terms, precise arrangements are to be evolved in actual working. The objective is that the zila parishad and development personnel at the district level should take all steps necessary to ensure that the development plan of the district as a whole is carefully formulated and effectively implemented and does, in fact, give the proper lead ,to panchayat samitis. It is essential to the success of Panchayati Raj that the taxation powers conferred on panchayat samitis and on zila parishads should be utilised for mobilising local resources to a greater extent than has been possible in the past. This has to be stressed because in the initial phase of Panchayati Raj there has been unwillingness on the part of many of the new institutions to impose taxes.. The Five Year Plans have stressed the need for legislation being enacted by States for defining and enforcing obligations of beneficiaries in respect of irrigation and soil conservation. Implementation of betterment laws has been very slow. Laws defining the other obligations have been enacted only in a few States. The result is that the facilities provided remain unused over fairly long periods. The laws should also provide that where beneficiaries fail to carry out the works in time, the panchayats should carry them out and realised the cost, where village panchayats do not act speedily, the government or on its behalf the panchayat samiti should arrange for execution, the cost being recovered eventually from the beneficiaries.

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