Mains Paper 2: International Relations
Prelims level: Nishan Izzuddin
Mains level: India and its neighbourhood relations
Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s first official visit abroad in his
second term to the Maldives and Sri Lanka reiterated that the “neighbourhood
first” policy remains the credo of the new government.
It reaffirmed India’s longstanding ties with these two countries.
It signalled Delhi’s assertion in the Indian Ocean region, where
Chinese power and influence compete with its own.
Significance from this visit
India has been helped in this by the major political changes in
both countries where governments seen as “pro-China” were swept out in
democratic elections and replaced with those that seem more India friendly,
or at least more “balanced” in their foreign policies, Sri Lanka in 2015 and
the Maldives as recently as last November.
During the Modi visit, apart from signing a slew of agreements,
India and Maldives agreed to strengthen their maritime security co-operation
to maintain peace and stability in the Indian Ocean, and not allow their
respective territories to be used for activity inimical to the other,
oblique but obvious boilerplate references to Chinese interests in the
Combating terrorism and maintaining peace
In both Male and Colombo, Prime Minister Modi made common cause on
the issue of fighting terrorism.
While Maldives has seen a high number of young people in
proportion to its population leave the country to join the ISIS, Sri Lanka
is still reeling from the April 21 bombings by a group of highly radicalised
Sri Lankan Muslims, later claimed by ISIS as its own.
During Modi’s visit to Male, India and the Maldives agreed to set
up a Joint Working Group on Counter Terrorism, Countering Violent Extremism
In Colombo, as the first foreign leader to visit the island after
the bombings, Prime Minister Modi conveyed that India stood in solidarity
with Sri Lankans during this difficult period.
In another era, in view of the open hostility from Sinhala
Buddhist hardliners toward the island’s Muslim community that is threatening
the peace, India might have underlined the importance of communal harmony in
the island as a vital element in checking violent radicalisation in the
While Delhi has managed to regain its footing in both capitals, in
order for this to be lasting and able to withstand political changes, India
will need to be win influence through the hard work of trust building and
co-operation at many levels political, official and people to people.
It can no longer be demanded as an entitlement by sheer virtue of
being their biggest and most powerful neighbour.
Minister for External Affairs S Jaishankar correctly said last
week that India’s neighbourhood policy had to be “more generous” and freed
from bureaucratic reciprocity.
With a fresh and more powerful mandate, the Modi government is
well placed to do this.
Q.1) Which of the following statements is/are correct with respect to 'Bugyals': 1. These are meadows found at heights of less than 2000 feet.
2. They are primarily found in the state of Sikkim.
3. They make excellent pasture-grazing grounds.
Select the correct answer using the code given below. (a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 2 only
Q.1) Describe the significance of PM Modi’s visit to Male, Colombo is a
reiteration of the principle and bolsters Delhi’s ties with the two island